many NRC committees, including the Committee on the Science of Climate Change and Climate Research Committee. He is the recipient of the AMS Rossby Award and the AGU Revelle Medal. Dr. Dickinson received his Ph.D. in meteorology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Ellen R.M. Druffel is the Advance chair and professor of Earth System Science at the University of California, Irvine. Her research interests include coupling between climate and ocean ventilation and their effects on global carbon dioxide cycling and tracking the influence of climate change on present and past upper-ocean circulation using isotope studies of annually banded corals. Dr. Druffel is a fellow of AAAS and AGU; she is president of the Ocean Sciences section of AGU. She has served on several NRC committees, including the Ocean Studies Board and the Committee on Oceanic Carbon. She received her Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California, San Diego.

Douglas Nychka is a senior scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Before joining NCAR, he spent 14 years as a faculty member in the Statistics Department at North Carolina State University. In his current role, his primary challenge is interdisciplinary research and migrating statistical techniques to important scientific problems and using these problems to motivate novel statistical research. His personal research interests include nonparametric regression, statistical computing, spatial statistics, and spatial designs. Dr. Nychka currently serves on the NRC Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin.

Bette Otto-Bliesner is a scientist in the Climate and Global Dynamics Division at NCAR in Boulder, Colorado. She is head of the Paleoclimate Group and deputy head of the Climate Change Research Section. Her research interest is to use climate system models to investigate past climate and climate variability across a wide range of timescales. She is particularly interested in the range and modes of climate variability forced naturally (internally generated, volcanic episodes, solar changes, greenhouse gases) over the last 1,000 years and extending through the Holocene to the Last Glacial Maximum (21,000 years before present). Dr. Otto-Bliesner is chair of the AGU Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology Focus Group and a member of the scientific steering committees of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) program of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP). She is also currently serving as a lead author on the IPCC Fourth Assessment report. She received her Ph.D. in meteorology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Neil Roberts is the head of the School of Geography at the University of Plymouth. His main research interests are in Holocene environmental change, especially the lake sediment record of climate and human impact in low-latitude regions such as East Africa and the Mediterranean. Dr. Roberts is a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and a member of the British Geomorphological Research Group, the British Ecological Society, and the American Quaternary Association. He is the author of The Holocene: An Environmental History. Dr. Roberts received his Ph.D. from University College London.

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