that the varying career paths, debt burdens, and need to balance family and career had differentially acute impacts on women (NRC, 2004).

Women constitute 29 percent of the faculty of basic science departments and 30 percent of the faculty of clinical departments (Barzansky and Etzel, 2002). The data indicate that women do not advance along the academic career path at the same rate as men (see Table 3-1) (AAMC, 2003).

In a landmark study conducted in 1999, female graduates of medical schools were found more likely than male graduates to pursue an academic career, but the numbers of women advancing to associate and full professor rank were lower than expected for both tenure and nontenure tracks (Nonnemaker, 2000). The study found that 25 percent fewer women than expected rose to the rank of associate professor and 43 percent fewer women than expected rose to the rank of full professor. The influx of women into academic health professions over the past three decades has not been accompanied by equality for male and female faculty in rank attainment, leadership roles, salaries, or treatment by colleagues and superiors. An examination of one academic institution indicated substantial gender differences in the rewards and opportunities offered to men and women. There were also significant gender disparities in salary (Wright et al., 2003). After adjusting for rank, track, degree, specialty, years in rank, and administrative positions, researchers found that the women in the institution earned 11 percent less than men. In general, however, the women were as productive as the men based on both publications and clinical revenues,

TABLE 3-1 Distribution of Full-Time U.S. Medical School Faculty by Sex and Rank, 2003

Rank

Male

Female

Total

Professor

21,947

3,652

25,599

Associate professor

16,884

6,025

22,909

Assistant professor

27,072

16,186

43,258

Instructor

6,113

5,787

11,900

Other

1,070

940

2,010

Total

73,086

32,590

105,676

NOTE: The table excludes 231 faculty with missing sex data.

SOURCE: Faculty Roster, Association of American Medical Colleges, 2003.



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