FIGURE 3-3 Black, Asian, and Hispanic M.D./Ph.D. graduates, 1986-2002.

SOURCE: Data Warehouse, Association of American Medical Colleges, 2002.

NIH PROGRAMS FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH AND MINORITY RESEARCHERS

The National Institutes of Health administer a variety of public programs that may be used to help develop minority clinical researchers. Some of these programs are directed toward developing clinical researchers generally regardless of race or ethnicity, though some grants may be administered through a minority-targeted component. Other programs are specifically targeted to the development of minority investigators, some of whom will become basic biomedical researchers and others will become clinical investigators.

Minority Research Training Programs

The NIH provides targeted programs designed to increase the participation of underrepresented minorities in biomedical, behavioral, and clinical research careers. These programs for undergraduates, graduate students, and postdoctoral fellows seek to increase the participation in these fields of individuals from historically underrepresented groups: African Americans, Hispanics, American Indians, and Pacific Islanders. While clinical training typically occurs at the graduate or postdoctoral level, undergraduate programs discussed below may train students who later choose a clinical re-



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