• Have students collaborate as members of teams while learning—clinical projects, research projects.

  • Broaden students’ exposure beyond a single discipline (e.g., see Sung et al., 2003).

  • Caution students about achieving depth in a field of study at the expense of awareness of possible connections beyond the disciplinary gaze (e.g., connecting the molecular to the organismic level).

  • Alert students to the likely emergence of new disciplines (e.g., computational biology, biomedical informatics).

Resources for Educating Clinical Researchers

  • T32 awards are often confined to a single discipline; they may not be broad enough to accommodate interdisciplinary clinical research.

  • K30 awards—clinical research training—can support interdisciplinary training, but they are not usually structured specifically to emphasize the experiences and skill sets for research collaboration (e.g., the University of Washington Clinical Research Training Program is inclusive of physicians and other healthcare professionals).

New Paradigms in Clinical Research Training

  • Interdisciplinary exposure as a foundation for team science.

  • Building research networks (e.g., cross-institutional partnerships between academic health centers and less research-intensive universities, medical centers, primary care practices).

  • Creative fellowship models with multisite study options for place-bound researchers, including online support.

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