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II. Private Contributions 25

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2005 PRIVATE CONTRIBUTIONS We gratefully acknowledge the support of private contributors to the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council. Contributions to the National Academy of Engineering are recognized in the NAE Program Report and The Bridge. The Einstein Society The Einstein Society recognizes the generosity of members and friends who have made cumulative lifetime contributions of $100,000 or more to the National Academies. John Abelson George C. Eads Frederick A. Klingenstein Robert A. Pritzker Bruce Alberts Richard Evans Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. Allen E. Puckett Jack R. Anderson Harvey V. Fineberg William W. Lang Simon Ramo John A. Armstrong George M. C. Fisher Gerald D. Laubach Carol Richards Holt Ashley Harold K. Forsen Tillie K. Lubin David Richards Richard C. Atkinson William L. Friend Whitney MacMillan Walter L. Robb Norman R. Augustine Eugene Garfield William W. McGuire Hinda G. Rosenthal William F. Ballhaus, Sr. T. H. Geballe Burton J. McMurtry Anne P. Rowe Barbara M. Barrett William T. Golden Richard L. Menschel John W. Rowe Craig R. Barrett Corey S. Goodman Ruben F. Mettler Dolores H. Russ Eleanor F. Barschall Bernard M. Gordon Dane A. Miller William J. Rutter Jordan J. Baruch David Grainger G. William Miller* Jillian Sackler Warren L. Batts Jerome H. Grossman George P. Mitchell Bernard G. Sarnat Stephen D. Bechtel, Jr. Corbin Gwaltney Ambrose K. Monell Sara Lee Schupf C. Gordon Bell Margaret A. Hamburg Gordon E. Moore Melvin I. Simon Elwyn R. Berlekamp William M. Haney, III Richard M. Morrow Ted Turner Diane Bernstein Michael Held Philip Needleman Leslie L. Vadasz Norman Bernstein The William R. Jackson Gerda K. Nelson P. Roy Vagelos Elkan R. Blout Family Ralph S. O'Connor Alan M. Voorhees* David G. Bradley Robert L. James Peter O'Donnell, Jr. John C. Whitehead Donald L. Bren Anita K. Jones Kenneth H. Olsen Wm. A. Wulf Sydney Brenner Thomas V. Jones Doris Pankow Alejandro Zaffaroni Fletcher L. Byrom Kenneth A. Jonsson Jack S. Parker James McConnell Clark Yuet W. Kan C. Kumar N. Patel Roman W. DeSanctis Olga Kirchmayer Percy Pollard The Elkan Blout Society of the National Academy of Sciences The Elkan Blout Society honors one of the Academy's leading philanthropists and recognizes the generosity of living members of the National Academy of Sciences and individuals who have made cumulative contributions between $20,000 and $99,999. Andreas Acrivos Ellis B. Cowling William K. Estes Thomas Kailath John D. Baldeschwieler Stephen H. Crandall Richard L. Garwin A. Dale Kaiser Paul Berg James F. Crow Norman H. Giles Samuel Karlin R. Stephen Berry Pedro M. Cuatrecasas George Gloeckler James S. Langer Floyd E. Bloom Paul M. Doty David V. Goeddel Johanna M. H. Levelt Lewis M. Branscomb Mildred S. Dresselhaus William E. Gordon Sengers Daniel Branton Ernest L. Eliel James N. Gray Maclyn McCarty * Morrel H. Cohen Emanuel Epstein Norman H. Horowitz * Kenneth G. McKay * Recently Deceased 26

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Jane Menken Dominick P. Purpura H. Guyford Stever John Archibald Wheeler G. Lewis Meyer Alexander Rich Edward C. Stone Carl E. Wieman Arno G. Motulsky Frederic M. Richards Lubert Stryer Torsten N. Wiesel Norman F. Ness Paul R. Schimmel Martha Vaughan Jean D. Wilson John T. Potts, Jr. Rudi Schmid Andrew J. Viterbi Charles Yanofsky Frank Press Robert Louis Sinsheimer Irving L. Weissman The IOM Society of the Institute of Medicine The IOM Society recognizes the generosity of living members of the Institute of Medicine and individuals who have made cumulative contributions between $20,000 and $99,999. Drew E. Altman William H. Danforth Edward E. Penhoet Kenneth I. Shine John R. Ball Worth B. Daniels, Jr. Daniel W. Pettengill Robert Louis Sinsheimer Jack D. Barchas Richard L. Garwin John T. Potts, Jr. Rosemary A. Stevens Paul Berg Richard B. Johnston, Jr. Dominick P. Purpura Robert E. Tranquada Floyd E. Bloom Edithe J. Levit Alexander Rich Gail L. Warden Lewis M. Branscomb Margaret E. Mahoney William C. Richardson Irving L. Weissman Robert L. Brent Robert W. Miller Henry W. Riecken Torsten N. Wiesel Roger J. Bulger Arno G. Motulsky Sheila A. Ryan C. Kern Wildenthal Mary Sue Coleman Van C. Mow Stephen J. Ryan Jean D. Wilson Colleen Conway-Welch Mary O. Mundinger Charles A. Sanders Tadataka Yamada James F. Crow Robert M. Nerem Leonard D. Schaeffer Pedro M. Cuatrecasas Gilbert S. Omenn Rudi Schmid The Presidents' Circle The Presidents' Circle is a group of philanthropists from the private sector who advocate a greater awareness of science and technology in our society and a better understanding of the work of the National Academies. Jack R. Anderson Ralph J. Cicerone Norman Hackerman John F. McDonnell Barbara M. Barrett James McConnell Clark William M. Haney, III Burton J. McMurtry Craig R. Barrett Michael T. Clegg Samuel F. Heffner, Jr. Charles H. McTier Thomas D. Barrow Dollie Cole Jane Hirsh Kamal K. Midha Warren L. Batts W. Dale Compton M. Blakeman Ingle G. William Miller* Berkley Bedell Nancy E. Conrad Christopher Ireland George P. Mitchell Diane Bernstein Howard E. Cox, Jr. Robert L. James Joe F. Moore E. Milton Bevington Charles R. Denham Howard W. Johnson Robert W. Morey, Jr. Elkan R. Blout Charles W. Duncan, Jr. Kenneth A. Jonsson David T. Morgenthaler E. Cabell Brand George C. Eads Alice Kandell Darla Mueller John I. Brauman James L. Ferguson William F. Kieschnick Patricia S. Nettleship George Bugliarello Harvey V. Fineberg William I. Koch Peter O'Donnell, Jr. Malin Burnham John Brooks Fuqua* Jill Howell Kramer Jack S. Parker Dan W. Burns Raymond E. Galvin John H. Krehbiel, Jr. Frank Press Fletcher L. Byrom Eugene Garfield Gerald D. Laubach Robert A. Pritzker Louis W. Cabot Jack M. Gill Richard J. Mahoney Allen E. Puckett Wiley N. Caldwell Ronald L. Graham Robert H. Malott Peter H. Raven George W. Carmany III Ruth H. Grobstein Thomas A. Mann John S. Reed David R. Challoner Jerome H. Grossman Davis Masten Charles W. Robinson * Recently Deceased 27

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Neil R. Rolde Barbara A. Schaal Deborah Szekely Margaret S. Wilson Hinda G. Rosenthal Sara Lee Schupf Robert H. Waterman Wm. A. Wulf Stephen J. Ryan H.R. Shepherd Kenneth E. Weg Jillian Sackler Georges C. St. Laurent, Susan E. Whitehead Harvey S. Sadow Jr. Sheila E. Widnall The Heritage Society In recognition of members and friends who have contributed to the future of the National Academies through life income, bequest and other estate and planned gifts. Andreas Acrivos William K. Estes Arno G. Motulsky Sheila A. Ryan Gene M. Amdahl Richard Evans Van C. Mow Paul R. Schimmel Norman R. Augustine Robert C. Forney Mary O. Mundinger Stuart F. Schlossman Stephen D. Bechtel, Jr. Paul H. Gilbert Gerda K. Nelson Rudi Schmid Paul Berg Norman H. Giles Norman F. Ness Kenneth I. Shine Franklin H. Blecher Martin E. Glicksman Ronald P. Nordgren Robert Louis Sinsheimer Elkan R. Blout George Gloeckler Gilbert S. Omenn Dale F. Stein Daniel Branton Michael Held Zack T. Pate Esther S. Takeuchi Robert L. Brent Richard B. Johnston, Jr. Daniel W. Pettengill Ivan M. Viest Morrel H. Cohen Anita K. Jones Frank Press Willis H. Ware Colleen Conway-Welch Jerome Kagan Simon Ramo Robert H. Wertheim Ellis B. Cowling Samuel Karlin Allen F. Rhodes John Archibald Wheeler Ruth M. Davis John W. Landis Alexander Rich Wm. A. Wulf Paul M. Doty William W. Lang Frederic M. Richards Charles Yanofsky Mildred S. Dresselhaus Edithe J. Levit Henry W. Riecken Michael Zubkoff Merlin K. DuVal Jane Menken Richard J. Robbins Ernest L. Eliel G. Lewis Meyer Hinda G. Rosenthal Emanuel Epstein Gordon E. Moore James F. Roth Catalyst Society Recognizing members and friends who contributed $10,000 or more to the National Academies in 2005. John Abelson David V. Goeddel Johanna M. H. Levelt Stephen J. Ryan Bruce and Betty Alberts William T. Golden Sengers Jillian Sackler Rose-Marie and Jack R. Drs. Corey Goodman and Burton J. McMurtry Sara Lee Schupf Anderson Marcia Barinaga Richard L. Menschel Melvin I. Simon Richard C. Atkinson James N. Gray George P. Mitchell Georges C. St. Laurent, John D. Baldeschwieler Jerome H. Grossman Ambrose K. Monell Jr. Barbara M. Barrett Robert and Margot Gordon E. Moore Edward C. Stone Craig R. Barrett Haselkorn Joe F. Moore Robert E. Tranquada Elwyn R. Berlekamp Anita K. Jones Vik Muniz P. Roy Vagelos Diane Bernstein Kenneth A. Jonsson Woodrow A. Myers, Jr. Andrew J. Viterbi Norman Bernstein Yuet Wai and Alvera Kan Philip and Sima James D. Watson Malin Burnham Jeong H. Kim Needleman John C. Whitehead Fletcher L. Byrom Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. Ralph S. O'Connor Wm. A. Wulf Wiley N. Caldwell Jill Howell Kramer Peter O'Donnell, Jr. Keith R. Yamamoto James McConnell Clark Gerald D. Laubach Simon Ramo Clarence S. Coe* Frank T. and Bonnie Charles W. Robinson Harvey V. Fineberg Berger Leighton John W. Rowe * Recently Deceased 28

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Rosette Society Recognizing members and friends who contributed between $5,000 and $9,999 to the National Academies in 2005. Clay M. Armstrong Catherine D. DeAngelis Tillie K. Lubin Jean Stein John R. Ball Paul M. Doty Robert H. Malott Judith S. Stern, R.D. Thomas D. Barrow Charles W. Duncan, Jr. Kamal K. Midha Lubert Stryer Warren L. Batts George C. Eads G. William Miller* Patrick Suppes William J. Baumol Clara Franzini-Armstrong Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Eric J. Topol Paul Berg Raymond E. Galvin Morey Ellen M. Urbanski Francis R. Boyd* James R. Gavin, III Ronald P. Nordgren Harold E. Varmus Lewis M. Branscomb Jack M. Gill Jack S. Parker Gail L. Warden John A. Carbon Bradford H. Gray Edward E. Penhoet Johannes and Julia Ralph and Carol Cicerone Jane Hirsh Ronald L. Rivest Weertman Mary Sue Coleman Joseph F. Hoffman Neil R. Rolde Carl E. Wieman R. James Cook M. Blakeman Ingle Harvey S. Sadow Torsten N. Wiesel James F. Crow Robert L. James Rudi Schmid C. Kern Wildenthal Edward E. David, Jr. William F. Kieschnick Eric M. Shooter Charles Yanofsky Challenge Society Recognizing members and friends who contributed between $2,500 and $4,999 to the National Academies in 2005. Berkley Bedell Charles R. Denham Shiriki K. Kumanyika Joan A. Steitz E. Milton Bevington Mildred S. Dresselhaus James S. and Elinor G. Deborah Szekely Floyd E. Bloom Eugene Garfield Langer Thomas J. Tierney E. Cabell Brand David T. Gibson Davis Masten Daniel C. Tosteson Robert H. Brook Antonio M. Gotto, Jr. John F. McDonnell George F. Vande Woude Louis W. Cabot William M. Haney, III David T. Morgenthaler Robert H. Waterman George W. Carmany III Samuel F. Heffner, Jr. Van C. Mow Kenneth E. Weg David R. Challoner Arthur L. Herbst Darla Mueller Irving L. Weissman Barry and Bobbi Coller William N. Hubbard, Jr. George E. Mueller Frank H. Westheimer Nancy E. Conrad Christopher Ireland Robert M. Nerem Susan E. Whitehead Howard E. Cox, Jr. Dr. and Mrs. Howard W. Patricia S. Nettleship Gail R. Wilensky Stephen H. Crandall Johnson Roy Radner Jean D. Wilson Pedro M. Cuatrecasas Marc and Phyllis William C. Richardson Margaret S. Wilson Karen Davis Kirschner Donna E. Shalala Warren M. Zapol Michael E. DeBakey Charlotte V. Kuh H.R. Shepherd Charter Society Recognizing members and friends who contributed between $1,000 and $2,499 to the National Academies in 2005. Andreas Acrivos Edward M. Arnett Sheila M. Begg Mina J. Bissell Nancy E. Adler Arthur K. Asbury Clyde J. Behney Elkan R. Blout Dyanne D. Affonso Robert Austrian J. Claude Bennett Felix Boehm Peter C. Agre Elizabeth Barrett-Connor Kenneth I. Berns Enriqueta C. Bond Bobby R. Alford Stephen W. Barthold R. Stephen Berry Stuart Bondurant Clarence R. Allen Roger N. Beachy Ernest Beutler Jo Ivey Boufford Ron J. Anderson Steven C. Beering William Bevan Myron K. Brakke Wyatt W. Anderson Heather L. Begg Lutz Birnbaumer * Recently Deceased 29

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Drs. Rachel and Henry Fred H. Gage Herbert S. Lin Randy Schekman Brem Robert C. Gallo R. Duncan Luce Steven A. Schroeder Neal S. Bricker Norman F. Gant Margaret E. Mahoney Andrew M. Sessler Harold Brown Eva Marie Garroutte Anthony P. Mahowald Richard B. Setlow Eugenio Calabi John A. Glomset Robert W. Mann Larry J. Shapiro Charles C.J. Carpenter Jerry P. Gollub James S. and Judith M. Kenneth I. Shine Christine K. Cassel Katherine C. Goodman Marks Stephen M. Shortell Gail H. Cassell William E. Gordon Reynaldo Martorell Maxine F. Singer Willard Cates, Jr. Jeff Gore Richard A. McCray G. William Skinner Thure E. Cerling Ronald L. Graham Frank B. McDonald Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Yu-Mei Y. Chao Harry B. Gray J. Michael McGinnis Alfred Sommer Purnell W. Choppin Margie and Larry A. William W. McGuire Harold C. Sox, Jr. Maarten J. Chrispeels Green Steven L. McKnight Patricia G. Spear Arthur D. Code Diane E. Griffin Robert L. Metzenberg William N. Spellacy Fred E. Cohen Ashley T. Haase James K. Mitchell Charles M. Stein Douglas L. Coleman Norman Hackerman James J. Mongan Donald M. Steinwachs E. William Colglazier M. A. Haynes Nancy A. Moran H. Guyford Stever Morris F. Collen Bernadine P. Healy Aron Arthur Moscona Susanne A. Stoiber Harvey R. Colten Jerris R. Hedges Arno G. Motulsky F. William Studier Max D. Cooper Maureen M. Henderson Norman F. Ness Jack W. Szostak Erminio Costa John L. Hennessy Elizabeth F. Neufeld Morris and Charlotte Ellis B. Cowling Drs. George C. Hill and Elena and Stuart Tanenbaum Nicholas R. Cozzarelli Linda Hare Nightingale Thomas N. Taylor Barbara J. Culliton Martha N. Hill Masayasu Nomura Samuel O. Thier Robert F. Curl, Jr. Ralph F. Hirschmann Paul A. Nutting David J. Thouless Roy Curtiss Brigid L. Hogan Judith L. Nyquist Shirley M. Tilghman William H. Danforth Pierre C. Hohenberg Gilbert S. Omenn Charles H. Townes James E. Darnell, Jr. Terry K. Holmer June E. Osborn Karl K. Turekian Earl W. Davie Hedvig Hricak Lising Ou and Daniel Michael S. Turner Raymond Davis, Jr. Peter B. Hutt Ward Wylie Vale Igor B. Dawid Shinya Inoue Larry E. Overman Martha Vaughan Carl de Boor Lily Y. Jan Arthur B. Pardee Sidney F. Velick Gordon H. DeFriese Yuh N. Jan Herbert Pardes Peter K. Vogt Robert A. Derzon Marie-Louise T. Johnson Robert E. Patricelli Peter and Josephine von Roman W. DeSanctis Thomas Kailath Ruth Patrick Hippel Carl Djerassi Samuel L. Katz Steven M. Paul Myron L. Weisfeldt R. Gordon Douglas, Jr. David W. Kennedy Arno A. Penzias Dr. and Mrs. James A. Jeffrey M. Drazen David M. Kipnis Ron and Judy Phillips Wells David S. Eisenberg Mary Anne Koda-Kimble Frank Press George M. Whitesides W. G. Ernst Edward A. Kravitz Robert A. Pritzker Catherine M. Wilfert Ronald W. Estabrook David J. Kupfer Helen M. Ranney Charles B. Wilson Ronald M. Evans Jay and Jeri Labov Mark A. Ratner Richard V. Wolfenden Stanley Fahn Eric S. Lander Peter H. Raven Dianne and Harold Delbert A. Fisher I. Robert Lehman Charles C. Richardson Wolman G. David Forney, Jr. Jeffrey M. Leiden Paul Grant Rogers H. E. Wright, Jr. Ellen Frank Alphonso E. Leure- Allan Rosenfield Tadataka Yamada Hans and Verena Dupree Anatol Roshko Tilahun D. Yilma Frauenfelder Lawrence S. Lewin Janet D. Rowley Jan A. D. Zeevaart Ronald Freedman James S. Lieberman Erkki Ruoslahti Nicholas T. Zervas Carl Frieden Jeffrey A. Lieberman Vinod K. Sahney Michael Zubkoff Edward A. Frieman Hans W. Liepmann Alan F. Schatzberg * Recently Deceased 30

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Other Individual Donors Recognizing members and friends who contributed up to $999 to the National Academies in 2005. Francois M. Abboud Clyde F. Barker Allison Blakely Kim K. Burson Faye G. Abdellah G. O. Barnett Dan G. Blazer Eduardo L. Cadava Herbert L. Abrams Jeremiah A. Barondess Robert J. Blendon John Cairns, Jr. Eileen Abt Susan G. Barron R. D. Blim Roberto R. Calderon Jan D. Achenbach Michele Barry Nicolaas Bloembergen Joedy W. Cambridge Robert McC. Adams William G. Barsan Clara D. Bloomfield Allan Campbell Julius Adler George A. Bartholomew Edward and Lark Blum Brian A. Canepa John E. Affeldt Jacqueline K. Barton Baruch S. Blumberg Federico Capasso Bernard W. Agranoff Kristen R. Batch Lawrence D. Bobo M. Paul Capp Robert A. Alberty Howard and Alice Baum Morton Bobowick Diana D. Cardenas Yvette Alex-Assensoh Gordon A. Baym Thomas Bodenheimer Ariel and Mary Cardoso Afrah Ali and Thomas Zdenek P. Bazant Allan G. Bogue William B. Carey Clifton Alexander G. Bearn Richard J. Bonnie John E. Carlstrom Paula G. Allen-Meares Carol Beasley Mrs. Ruth F. Boorstin Marc A. Carrasco C. David Allis John C. Beck J. Lyle Bootman Penny Carver James B. Allison Richard E. Behrman L. Thompson Bowles Charles P. Casey Joel J. Alpert Helmut Beinert Marjorie A. Bowman A. Welford Castleman, Jr. Lawrence K. Altman Marlene Belfort Robert M. Boynton Carolyn Cavanaugh Sidney Altman A. Harvey Belitsky Allan M. Brandt Webster K. Cavenee Stuart H. Altman Baruj Benacerraf John I. Brauman Paul M. Chaikin Walter Alvarez Michael L. Bender Jeane Breinig Martin Chalfie Jennifer L. Alvidrez Francine Benes Patricia Brennan Owen Chamberlain Andrea and Dean Anason Leslie Z. Benet Robert L. Brent Duane W. Champagne Rosalyn H. Anderson Georges C. Benjamin Lester Breslow Britton Chance Theodore W. Anderson Charles L. Bennett W. F. Brinkman Samantha Chao William A. Anderson Joan W. Bennett R. L. Brinster Evan Charney Philip S. Anton Michael V. L. Bennett William A. Brock Art Charo and Maude Charles E. Arbanas Jeffrey L. Bennetzen Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. Fish Thomas S. Arrison John A. Benson, Jr. Claire V. Broome Hazel K. Cheilek Kenneth J. Arrow Charles E. Benton, Jr. Dorothy Brooten Lincoln C. Chen Ann M. Arvin May R. Berenbaum Carolyn T. Brown Wilsonia Cherry K. Frank Austen Robert G. Bergman James H. Brown Margaret A. Chesney W. Gerald Austen Ruth L. Berkelman Robert H. Brown John S. Chipman Mary Ellen Avery Bobbie A. Berkowitz Taylor K. Brown Francis V. Chisari Jawaid Awan Howard A. Bern Gordon L. Brownell Zang-Hee Cho Myrtle K. Aydelotte Lucy Bernholz George Bruening Nancy D. Choudhry Barbara A. Bacon Lionel M. Bernstein Donnie L. Bryant Luther P. Christman Howard L. Bailit Jerome A. Berson Brenda Buchbinder Gary Christopherson David H. Baker James Bethel Philip H. Bucksbaum Constance F. Citro Lee D. Baker Peter J. Bickel Joseph A. Buckwalter George W. Clark Paul T. Baker Grace and Jacob Kathleen Coen Keith S. Clark W. O. Baker* Bigeleisen Buckwalter Noreen M. Clark Ransom L. Baldwin Rodger C. Birt Martin J. Bukovac William A. Clark Robert L. Baldwin Maureen Bisognano Maurice B. Burg Michael A. Clarke Robert W. Balluffi Richard E. Bissell Raymond Buriel Michael T. Clegg Rose and John Bannigan Robert L. Black Rebecca Burka John A. Clements Jack D. Barchas and Harold D. and Mary E. Donald L. Burkholder Linda Hawes Clever Rosemary A. Stevens Blackwell R. H. Burris Albert M. Clogston William A. Bardeen Peter D. Blair Gerard N. Burrow Michael D. Coe * Recently Deceased 31

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Leona R. Coffee Dale J. Degenshein Charles J. Epstein Sara M. Frueh Joel E. Cohen Johann Deisenhofer Robert M. Epstein Dennis G. Fryback Marshall H. Cohen David L. Denlinger William K. Estes Carolyn J. Fuqua Nigel B. Cohen Douglas and Jeanne C. M. Evarts Robert F. Furchgott Robin L. Cohen Denning John H. Exton Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr. Mildred Cohn Paul M. Densen Sandra M. Faber Lucy Fusco R. John Collier Renuka D. Deonarain Ruth R. Faden Steven G. Gabbe Drs. Jack H. and Rita R. Ronald A. DePinho Claire M. Fagin Janice K. Gagnon Colwell Jane F. Desforges Stefan S. Fajans Mitchell H. Gail Jack M. Colwill Robert J. Desnick Harold J. Fallon Mary K. Gaillard Denis and Jacqueline Don E. Detmer Robert M. Fano Sergey A. Galkin Combs Thomas Detre David S. Farrar Joseph G. Gall John J. Conger David K. Detweiler Mark D. Farrell E. John Gallagher Allan H. Conney Allen J. Dietrich Reyna Favis Susan Garbini Robert E. Connick William H. Dietz David A. Feary Andres J. Garcia Edward J. Connors David L. Dilcher Rashi Fein Rodolfo and Jean Garcia Esther M. Conwell Salvatore DiMauro Gary Felsenfeld Mr. and Mrs. Robert R. Robert B. Copeland Avinash K. Dixit Thomas and Barbara Gardenier Janet M. Corrigan Jack E. Dixon Ferbel Janet E. Garton-Ciarleglio Dale R. Corson Mr. and Mrs. Thomas G. Stuart Ferency Raymond Gavins Charles S. Cox Donahue Lucien and Sima Ficks E. Peter Geiduschek Gary Cox Suzanne Donovan Anne C. Field Hellen Gelband Gerald R. Crabtree Jennifer A. Doudna George B. Field Lillian Gelberg H. Richard Crane William F. Dove Stanley Fields Martin Gellert David Cranford Diana Doyle Elizabeth Fikre Alfred Gellhorn Jose R. Criado Charles F. Draper Clement A. Finch Robert J. Genco F. Fleming Crim Robert D. Drennan Forrest and Dorothy Apostolos Georgopoulos Maria Crocco Muriel M. Dreswick Fischer Marisa A. Gerstein John C. Crowell Susannah Dryden Mark C. Fishman John P. Geyman Jose L. Cruz-Rivera Michael Dudzik Regina C. Fitzgerald Martin Gibbs Herman Z. Cummins Cathleen Duffy Kent V. Flannery Kristen Gilbertson James W. Curran Floyd Dunn Juanita W. Fleming Barbara A. Gilchrest James H. Curry Jane S. Durch Cameron H. Fletcher Sid Gilman David Y. Curtin Ram Duriseti Gregory L. Florant David Ginsburg Carola Czernik Donald N. Duvick Lauro H. Flores Linda C. Giudice Alexander Dalgarno Mitzi L. Duxbury M. Judah Folkman Mark and Suzanne Brent and Sharon Johanna T. Dwyer Christopher C. Fordham Gladstone Dalrymple James L. Dye III Robert J. Glaser Yvonne L. Daniel Victor J. Dzau Sherrill and Glen Roger I. Glass Helen B. Darling Adam M. Dziewonski Fortinberry Alexander N. Glazer Philip D. Darney Timothy Eberlein Daniel W. Foster Irving H. Goldberg Jacqueline E. Darroch David M. Eddy Henry W. Foster, Jr. Lewis R. Goldfrank William H. Daughaday Jill S. Eden T. Kenneth Fowler Ellen Goldstein Denise L. D'Aunno Lawrence H. Einhorn Catherine Fox Joseph L. Goldstein David R. Davies Carl Eisdorfer Richard G. Frank Solomon W. Golomb Joanne Davila Leon Eisenberg Gordon C. Franke Vanna A. Gonzales Mark M. Davis Mickey S. Eisenberg Gertrude Fraser Deena Gonzalez Sigrid H. Dax Robert N. Eisenman Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr. Ward H. Goodenough Ciro de Quadros Lloyd C. Elam Ann and Scott Frazier Joyce S. Goodman John D. Dean Chris Elfring and Ann Wendy L. Freedman Morris Goodman Margaret C. Debutts Miles Hillary M. Freer Richard M. Goody Sean M. Decatur Ernest L. Eliel Emil Frei III Jeffrey and Deborah Alan H. DeCherney S. Walter Englander Maurice Fried Gordon Thomas DeFrantz Jared Eno Gertrude Friedman Lev P. Gorkov * Recently Deceased 32

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Lawrence O. Gostin Stanley R. Hart James M. Hughes Mr. and Mrs. James E. Emil C. Gotschlich Christine R. Hartel John R. Huizenga Killian Milton M. Gottesman James B. Hartle Barbara S. Hulka Linda M. Kilroy Roy W. Gould Florence P. Haseltine Nancy P. Humphrey David A. Kindig Robert Graham J. Woodland Hastings Lance Hunter Lonnie J. King William R. Granik Elizabeth Hatch Tony Hunter Sheldon S. King Helene and Al Grant Jeffrey M. Hauk Jerard Hurwitz Talmadge E. King, Jr. Lisa Grant Robert M. Hauser James B. Hutchinson, Jr. James L. Kinsey Verne Grant Richard J. Havel Elizabeth and William Gordon and Catherine David L. Gray Neil F. Hawks Huthnance Kirschner Jonathon R. Gray John M. Hayes Richard and Fleur Hynes Andrea Kisiner J. T. Grayston C. V. Haynes, Jr. Anthony J. and Mary Richard J. Kitz Louis C. Green Rosetta R. Haynes Iacono Todd R. Klaenhammer Ed and Marjorie Greene William R. Hazzard Alex Inkeles Seymour J. Klebanoff William T. Greenough Joanne M. Healy Thomas S. Inui Herbert D. Kleber Deborah Greenspan Ruby P. Hearn Kurt J. Isselbacher Claude B. Klee John S. Greenspan Alan J. Heeger J. David Jackson Luella Klein M.R.C. Greenwood D. S. Heeschen Andre T. Jagendorf Miles V. Klein Ulf Grenander Richard and Marilyn Rakesh K. Jain Royce Kneece and Frances E. Griffiths Heiman Donna L. Jameison Beverly Updike Robert B. Griffiths Donald R. Helinski Brent C. James Stacey L. Knobler Robert C. Griggs Adam Heller William P. Jencks Andrew H. Knoll Paul F. Griner Robert W. Hellwarth Christopher and Mary Leon Knopoff Gerald N. Grob Russell J. Hemley Jenks William S. Knowles Ruth H. Grobstein Brian E. Henderson Peter A. Johnson Eric I. Knudsen Jerome E. Groopman Ernest M. Henley Stephanie E. Johnson William I. Koch Marilyn and Norman Jane E. Henney Timothy R. Johnson Howard K. Koh Grossblatt Theodore M. Hesburgh Edward G. Jones C. Everett Koop Michael Grossman Howard H. Hiatt Robert J. Joynt William J. Koopman Kevin Grumbach Evelyn B. Higginbotham Judith A. Justusson Jeffrey P. Koplan Melvin M. Grumbach John Higginson Michael M. Kaback David Korn Fernando A. Guerra Robert L. Hill Richard V. Kadison Edward D. Korn Keith Guinn Drs. Kurt and Rochelle Bonnie L. Kaiser Arthur Kornberg Laurie M. Gunter Hirschhorn Judith M. Kalman Anne O. Krueger Karl E. Gustavson John P. Hirth Eugenia Kalnay Kuehnel Family Alan and Brigid Mahlon Hoagland Jerome Karle Ada Kulyk Guttmacher John R. Hogness Arthur Karlin Ajit and Joan Kumar Bernard Guyer Frank Hole Samuel Karlin Louis M. Kunkel Laurel Haak Jonathan S. Holloway James Karson Family Stephen W. Lagakos Amy Haas Charles J. Homer Robert W. Kates Robert A. Lamb Willy Haeberli Drs. Eddie and Robert Katzman Valerie L. Lambert Caroline Breese Hall Gwendolyn Hoover Francine R. Kaufman Alan M. Lambowitz Jeffrey C. Hall Dwight N. Hopkins Wendy E. Keenan Arthur Landy Zach W. Hall Thomas F. Hornbein Edmond J. Keller M. Daniel Lane Charles R. Halpern Donald F. Hornig K. I. Kellermann David B. Lang Bruce D. Hammock Susan B. Horwitz Hans J. Kende Norma M. Lang Charles B. Hammond Margaret K. Hostetter Charles F. Kennel Joseph Larner Philip C. Hanawalt Robert and Mary Houdek James P. Kennett Martin G. Larrabee* Ruth S. Hanft James S. House Robert O. Keohane Joyce C. Lashof Amir and Margit Hanna Embry M. Howell H. Gobind Khorana Judith R. Lave Ben B. Hansen William W. Howells* Margaret G. Kidwell Robert S. Lawrence Susan Hanson Peter M. Howley Susan W. Kieffer Thu Minh Le Carol Haraden John P. Huchra John B. Kiel Alexander Leaf Anne Harrington Yvette M. Huet-Hudson Edwin D. Kilbourne Kit Lee * Recently Deceased 33

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Jaime Lees Robert R. Marshak Sheila Miller Michael L. Owens Anthony Leggett Susan N. Martel Wilhelmine Miller William F. Page William J. Lennarz Lee A. Martinez Beatrice Mintz Richard F. Pain Nelson J. Leonard Ricardo Martinez Mortimer Mishkin Peter Palese Alan I. Leshner Manuel Martinez- Faith Mitchell Thomas M. Palmerlee Robert L. Letsinger Maldonado Paul L. Modrich Jose M. Paredes Ron Leve Teresita Martinez-Vergne Natalia Molina Charles and Patricia Howard Leventhal Egon and Irene Marx Ricardo A. Molins Parmenter George M. Levin Tina Masciangioli Michael J. Montoya Robert G. Parr Simon A. Levin Ted and Genevieve Harold A. Mooney George W. Parshall Arnold J. Levine Mason Dr. and Mrs. C. Bradley Barbara H. Partee C. S. Levings, III Douglas S. Massey Moore Patricia P. Paulette Austin J. Lewis Rowena G. Matthews Peter B. Moore Charles Pautler Family Guenter Lewy Sandra Matthews Victoria Mora Mary B. Paxton Allen S. Lichter Portia K. Maultsby James M. Moran Desiree Pedescleaux Walter and Lois Liggett Anne S. Mavor Cathleen S. Morawetz Ramona Lee Perez Olga F. Linares Edward R.B. McCabe Herbert and Michele David D. Perkins James Lindesay Charles A. McCallum Morris Kathy Perkins W. Carl Lineberger C. Joseph McCannon Wilson J. Moses Marilyn I. Persico Erika H. Lloyd Bob and Mary McCleary David and Elizabeth Anne C. Petersen Gwilym S. Lodwick, II Marie C. McCormick Mosher George Petras Alexander M. Long Dusa McDuff John H. Moxley, III Carol Petrie Kathleen M. Lopez Bruce S. McEwen Sezaki K. Mtingwa Daniel W. Pettengill Laszlo Lorand James and Becky Fitzhugh Mullan Gordon H. Pettengill George and Freia Lorimer McGaugh Walter H. Munk Ann Petty Barbara Lovitts Sherry Snyder and Mike Barbara Murphy Theodore L. Phillips James H. Lowry McGeary Jack Myers Lisa G. Pickoff-White Ruth W. Lubic Kenneth G. McKay Sharyl Nass and Eric A. R. Pierce Kim M. Lundberg Christopher F. McKee Costello Chester M. Pierce Leon and Liane Lunden Lionel W. McKenzie Eugene W. Nester Marlon Pierce Nicole Lurie Jennifer E. McKeon Fay Eric J. Nestler Vivian W. Pinn Rachel E. Lynch William McLeod and Duncan B. Neuhauser Allan Pitcher Joanne Lynn Caroline Herbert Kisha Newman Roy M. Pitkin Philip W. Maas, Jr. James O. McNamara Michelle R. Neyman Gina Marie Pitti Eleanor E. Maccoby Marcia K. McNutt Gail A. Nielsen Jeffrey L. Platt Littleton and Dorothy Chris McShane Arthur W. Nienhuis Mary Lake Polan MacDorman James C. McWilliams Louis Nirenberg David J. Policansky Daniel R. MacGilvray Merrill Meadow Chon Noriega Leopold J. Pospisil Arturo Madrid and Jack H. Medalie Mark R. Norman Harriett Powell Antonia I. Castaneda Douglas L. Medin Thomas S. Novak William H. Press Maureen E. Mahon Sherman M. Mellinkoff Godfrey P. Oakley Ronald F. Probstein Donald C. Malins Ann G. Merchant Donald L. Oberg Mary Ann Pryor Dr. and Mrs. Thomas F. Richard A. Merrill Mary Ellen O'Connell Theodore T. Puck* Malone Stephen A. Merrill Margaret E. O'Kane Robert H. Purcell Henri R. Manasse, Jr. Richard E. Merritt Janice R. Okita Joyce Purnell David R. Mandel Michael H. Merson Daniel A. Okun Frank W. Putnam Mahadevan and Lalitha Henry Metzger Michael W. O'Mahoney Helen R. Quinn Mani Timothy I. Meyer and Neil D. Opdyke Thomas C. Quinn Marion Mann Emily E. Hostetter Mr. and Mrs. Leo B. Howard K. Rabinowitz Marilynn Mansfield Leo G. Michel Orbach Paul H. Rabinowitz Vincent T. Marchesi Ronald E. Mickens Maria P. Oria Mitchell T. Rabkin Daniel M. Marcus Edward L. Miles Gordon H. Orians Deborah and Richard Rudolph A. Marcus Janice M. Miller Sten Orrenius Raddock Paul A. Marks Louis H. Miller Douglas D. Osheroff Martin Raff * Recently Deceased 34

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J. E. Rall Hugh A. Sampson Mary E. Sias Paul M. Suratt Patricia Ramey Bruce J. Sams Robert J. Silbey Robert and Valerie Sutter Pamela Ramey-McCray Florence Sanders Mariza Silva Lindsay K. Swain G. Nagesh Rao James G. Sanderson Paul and Judy Silverman Morton N. Swartz John G. Ratcliffe Jeffrey J. Santa Ana Samuel C. Silverstein Lawrence A. Tabak Marina Ratner Otto Santa Ana Evelyn E. Simeon Herbert Tabor George G. Reader* Myriam P. Sarachik Laurel Simmons Paul Talalay Sara H. Reardon Alan C. Sartorelli David and Rachel Simons Evonne P. Tang Lester J. Reed Gordon H. Sato Robert Louis Sinsheimer Edwin W. Taylor Richard J. Reed Richard C. Scalzo William S. Sly Palmer W. Taylor Clifford E. Reid Sarah Frances Jonathan J. Small Ronald D. Taylor Machelle D. Reynolds Scarborough Kevin R. Smiley Susan S. Taylor Kenneth A. Ribet Peter T. Scardino Belinda Smith Marc T. Tessier-Lavigne Charles M. Rice Barbara A. Schaal Mary A. Smith Saul A. Teukolsky Alexander Rich Howard K. Schachman Terrell D. Smith Suzanne Stackhouse Jewelene Richardson Barbara Schaffer Robert R. Sokal William B. Thomas Julius B. Richmond Joseph E. Scherger Louis Sokoloff Alvin J. and Faye Burton Richter Gerold L. Schiebler Dieter Soll Thompson Robert L. Riemer Barbara Schlein David H. Solomon Anita and George Lorrin A. Riggs Suzanne B. Schneider Edward I. Solomon Thompson David L. Rimoin Richard M. Schoen Sean and Pamela James C. Thompson Victor Rios, Jr. J. William Schopf Solomon Laura Y. Thompson Jeremiah D. Rivera Lisbeth B. Schorr Daniel Solorzano Lonnie G. Thompson Amanda M. Roberts William R. Schowalter Anne R. Somers Gerald E. Thomson Eugene Roberts Robert W. Schrier Hugo F. Sonnenschein Maury Tigner Katherine C. Roberts Julie A. Schuck Elinor Sosne Vivian Tillman Bettye J. Robertson Barbara E. Schulz Gabriela Soto Laveaga Don Tippman DeVonne N. Robertson Gertrud M. Schupbach Peggy D. A. Southard Isabel Tirado Landus M. Robertson Alan L. Schwartz Andrew Spaltenstein Barbara Tomlinson R.G. H. Robertson William B. Schwartz Robert D. Sparks Andrew E. Tompkins Barbara Rodriguez John H. Schwarz Frank E. Speizer Carlos A. Toro-Diaz Jane Roessner Thomas L. Schwenk Allen M. Spiegel George H. Trilling Ming Chen and Jie Rong Matthew P. Scott Allan C. Spradling John Q. Trojanowski Adam and Autumn Rose Sharon K. Segal Franklin W. Stahl Gordon and Mary Tubbs Mark L. Rosenberg Sheldon J. Segal Peter J. Stang Linda Tublitz Murray Rosenblatt George E. Seidel, Jr. Lendel and Rowena John C. Tully Linda Rosenstock Donald W. Seldin Steele James H. Tumlinson, III Mark R. Rosenzweig Judith Shamir Robert Steinberg David Turnbull Cornelius Rosse Kathryn Shanley Donald F. Steiner Doris J. Turner Michael G. Rossmann Iris R. Shannon Rebecca M. Steinfield J. Anthony Tyson Richard E. Rowberg Donald C. Shapero Ralph M. Steinman Paul F. Uhlir Diane Rowland Aaron J. Shatkin Melvin E. Stern Roger H. Unger Harry Rubin Rebecca and Sidney Shaw Deborah D. Stine Leslie G. Ungerleider Vera C. Rubin Bennett A. Shaywitz Walther Stoeckenius Arthur C. Upton Abraham M. Rudolph Sally Shaywitz Vicki L. Stohl Joan Selverstone Anna Marie Ruef Michael L. Shelanski Janet A. Stoll Valentine Benjamin J. Rusek George F. Sheldon Richard Stoyer William N. Valentine Louise B. Russell Charles J. Sherr Pamela D. Strauss Paul and Susan Van Morris Russell Alexandra E. Shields Albert J. Stunkard Hemel Patricia A. Rutherford Edward H. Shortliffe Brian J. Stutz Rink and Marita van der Vernon W. Ruttan Andrew W. Shouse Federico Subervi Have Clarence A. Ryan, Jr. Erika C. Shugart Diane M. Sullenberger Nicole A. Vaughn Linda J. Saif Carol L. Shull Lawrence H. Summers Anna, Lisa & Michael Marla E. Salmon John G. Shultz Barbara Suratt Verhanovitz * Recently Deceased 35

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George Veronis Herbert Weissbach Kim M. Williams Ryuzo Yanagimachi Ben Vinson Michael J. Welch T. Franklin Williams Richard Yarborough Samuel S. Visner Kenneth B. Wells Jill Wilson John T. Yates, Jr. Ellen S. Vitetta John F. Wendt Linda S. Wilson Beverly and Daniel Yett Crystal Vogel Zena Werb Tina M. Winters Jonathan Yorba Alice L. Vorosmarti Susan R. Wessler Dyann F. Wirth Diana Young Kenneth W. Wachter Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Evelyn M. Witkin Laurence R. Young David B. Wake Whitaker Owen N. Witte Oliver J. Yun Salih J. Wakil Gilbert F. White Gerald N. Wogan Rafia Zafar Gary J. Walker Raymond L. White Barbara L. Wolfe Patricia C. Zambryski Dan and Heidi Walker Raymond P. White, Jr. Lincoln Wolfenstein Emilio Zamora Dr. and Mrs. Edward Willington and Shirley M. Gordon and Elaine Maria E. Zavala Wallach White Wolman E-an Zen Christopher T. Walsh Pamela L. Whitney Dr. Savio and Mrs. Pattie Paul B. Zielinski Mary R. Walters Raymond Widmayer Woo Dr. and Mrs. Herman L. Emmerson Ward Jeanine P. Wiener- Maurice Wood Zimmerman Bernard and Eileen Kronish William B. Wood, III Mary L. Zoback Wasow David A. Wilkinson Charles E. Woodward Huda Y. Zoghbi Michael S. Waterman Kim Willenson Mary M. Woolley Kathryn C. Zoon George D. Watkins James T. Willerson Catherine E. Woteki Dorothea Zucker-Franklin Patty Jo Watson David Williams Shelia Wright George D. Zuidema Scott T. Weidman David A. Williams Carl Wunsch Joanne Zurlo Steven Weinberg Ellen D. Williams James B. Wyngaarden Arthur Weiss George C. Williams Eli Yablonovitch * Recently Deceased 36

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Foundations Rose-Marie and Jack R. Anderson Foundation W.M. Keck Foundation Atlantic Philanthropies (USA) Inc. W.K. Kellogg Foundation Shirley and Cabell Brand Charitable Trust The Henry P. Kendall Foundation Branscomb Family Foundation The Koshland Foundation Brinkman Family Foundation Kramer Family Foundation The Harold & Colene Brown Family Foundation Richard Lounsbery Foundation The Burnham Foundation The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Burroughs Wellcome Fund The Malott Family Foundation W.P. Carey Foundation Alfred E. Mann Foundation for Biomedical Engineering Carnegie Corporation of New York The Marianthi Foundation, Inc. Commonweal Foundation Milbank Memorial Fund The Commonwealth Fund The Ambrose Monell Foundation The Ford Foundation Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Moses Cone-Wesley Long Community Health Golden Family Foundation Foundation William T. Grant Foundation National Dialogue on Cancer Foundation Great Lakes Protection Fund Open Society Institute The Greenwall Foundation The David and Lucile Packard Foundation The Grossman Family Charitable Foundation The Ralph M. Parsons Foundation The Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation Ploughshares Fund Heinz Family Foundation Russell Family Foundation The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Foundation, Inc. Hirsh Family Foundation Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation The Starr Foundation The James Irvine Foundation Tides Foundation The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation United Health Foundation The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Universal Health Care Foundation of Connecticut The Katz Family Foundation University of Alabama Health Services Foundation Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Virginia Health Care Foundation Kavli Foundation The Whitehead Foundation Corporations 3M Company Corning Incorporated Abbott Laboratories Edwards Lifesciences, LLC Aetna Inc. General Mills, Inc. Affinity Health Plan Genzyme Corporation Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. GlaxoSmithKline Foundation Battelle Humana, Inc. Bausch & Lomb, Inc. Information Network, Inc. Biotechnology Industry Organization Intel Corporation The Boeing Company International Business Machines Corporation Bose Corporation Johnson & Johnson Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Kaiser Permanente British Antarctic Survey Knobbe, Martens, Olson & Bear, LLP Burns, Doane, Swecker & Mathis, LLP Kraft Foods, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc. Eli Lilly and Company Client Business Services, Inc. Mars, Incorporated The Clorox Company Medtronic, Inc. ConAgra, Inc. Merck & Company, Inc. 37

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Microsoft Corporation Semiconductor Research Corporation Monsanto Company Sidley Austin Brown & Wood, LLP National Instruments Transport Canada Northrop Grumman Corporation United Healthcare Pfizer, Inc. UnitedHealth Group, Inc. Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. ExxonMobil Foundation RWM Management Co., Inc. Merck Company Foundation Sanofi Pasteur Nemours Foundation Scarbrough Ventures, LLC WellPoint Foundation Other Organizations Advanced Medical Technology Association Michigan State University Agate Alliance Association National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship The Agouron Institute New York University Alfred University Northwestern University American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Nuclear Threat Initiative American Academy of Sleep Medicine Parkland Health & Hospital System American Association of State Highway and Penn State University Transportation Officials The Philadelphia Foundation American Cancer Society, Inc. Population Reference Bureau American Chemistry Council Purdue University American Educational Research Association The Research Foundation of State University of New American Public Transportation Association York American Society for Microbiology Rice University American Society for Reproductive Medicine Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey American Society of Agronomy Rutherford, Brown & Catherwood American Society of Clinical Oncology San Diego State University American Trucking Association The San Francisco Foundation American University Sandia National Laboratories Americans for UNESCO Sealark Foundation Arizona State University The Seattle Foundation Association of American Railroads Stanford University Boston University Syracuse University Brandeis University The U.S. Charitable Gift Trust Brown University U.S. Green Building Council Carnegie Mellon University University of Alabama at Birmingham Columbia University University of California, Los Angeles Connecticut Clean Energy Fund University of Colorado Dartmouth College University of Delaware Duke University University of Florida Edison Electric Institute University of Miami Florida State University University of Minnesota Georgetown University University of Missouri Georgia Institute of Technology University of Notre Dame The Glenmede Trust Company The University of Pennsylvania Infectious Diseases Society of America University of Pittsburgh Institute for Healthcare Improvement University of Rochester Lehigh University University of Southern California Marquette University The University of Texas Massachusetts Technology Collaborative Washington State University Merck Institute for Science Education Washington University 38