studying mathematics and science in grades K–16. Dr. Cyr was a faculty advisor for the National Science Foundation model project for women and girls in which middle schools girls designed and built museum-quality, hands-on exhibits. She also coordinated a partnership with Prentice Hall for the revision of middle school science textbooks and is a member of a team that provides professional development in engineering design for K–12 teachers. Dr. Cyr received a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of New Hampshire in 1982 and an M.S. and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1987 and 1997, respectively.

MARC J. DE VRIES is an assistant professor of philosophy and methodology of technology, Eindhoven University of Technology, and an affiliate professor of reformational philosophy, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. Previously, he taught at a teacher training college for technology education and vocational technical education in Eindhoven. Dr. de Vries has published and made presentations in several countries on technology education, student assessment, and the philosophy of technology. He developed a 100-question survey, Pupils’ Attitudes Toward Technology (PATT), which has been used in about 30 countries to measure student understanding of technological ideas. Since 1999, Dr. de Vries has been editor-in-chief of the International Journal for Technology Education and Design. He was co-organizer of 15 international PATT conferences and an advisor on technology education development and assessment for UNESCO and OECD. Dr. de Vries has worked with Dutch educational television to produce programs on technology and is coauthor of a number of textbooks for grades 7–9. He is also cofounder of the Dutch technology teachers association. His current research is focused on the nature of technological knowledge.

WILLIAM E. DUGGER JR. is director of the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) Technology for All Americans Project, which published Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology (2000/2002) and Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy: Student Assessment, Professional Development, and Program Standards (2003). A Professor Emeritus at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Dr. Dugger was professor of education and program area leader for technology education in the College of Education from 1972 to 1994. From 1984 to 1985, he was president of ITEA, and from 1992

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