APPENDIX B
Technology-Related Standards and Benchmarks in the National Science Education Standards,1 Benchmarks for Science Literacy,2 and Standards for Technological Literacy3

National Science Education Standards

Standards Related to “Science and Technology”

Standard E1:
Abilities of Technological Design
Benchmarks for Grades K–4

Identify a simple problem. In problem identification, children should develop the ability to explain a problem in their own words and identify a specific task and solution related to the problem.

1

National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

2

American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1993. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. Reprinted with permission.

3

International Technology Education Association. 2002. Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology. Reston, Va.: ITEA. Reprinted with permission.



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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy APPENDIX B Technology-Related Standards and Benchmarks in the National Science Education Standards,1 Benchmarks for Science Literacy,2 and Standards for Technological Literacy3 National Science Education Standards Standards Related to “Science and Technology” Standard E1: Abilities of Technological Design Benchmarks for Grades K–4 Identify a simple problem. In problem identification, children should develop the ability to explain a problem in their own words and identify a specific task and solution related to the problem. 1 National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 2 American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1993. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. Reprinted with permission. 3 International Technology Education Association. 2002. Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology. Reston, Va.: ITEA. Reprinted with permission.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Propose a solution. Students should make proposals to build something or get something to work better; they should be able to describe and communicate their ideas. Students should recognize that designing a solution might have constraints, such as cost, materials, time, space, or safety. Implementing proposed solutions. Children should develop abilities to work individually and collaboratively and to use suitable tools, techniques, and quantitative measurements when appropriate. Students should demonstrate the ability to balance simple constraints in problem solving. Evaluate a product or design. Students should evaluate their own results or solutions to problems, as well as those of other children, by considering how well a product or design met the challenge to solve a problem. When possible, students should use measurements and include constraints and other criteria in their evaluations. They should modify designs based on the results of evaluations. Benchmarks for Grades 5–8 Identify appropriate problems for technological design. Students should develop their abilities by identifying a specified need, considering its various aspects, and talking to different potential users or beneficiaries. They should appreciate that for some needs, the cultural backgrounds and beliefs of different groups can affect the criteria for a suitable product. Design a solution or product. Students should make and compare different proposals in the light of the criteria they have selected. They must consider constraints—such as cost, time, trade-offs, and materials needed— and communicate ideas with drawings and simple models. Implement a proposed design. Students should organize materials and other resources, plan their work, make good use of group collaboration where appropriate, choose suitable tools and techniques, and work with appropriate measurement methods to ensure adequate accuracy. Evaluate completed technological designs or products. Students should use criteria relevant to the original purpose or need, consider a variety of

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy factors that might affect acceptability and suitability for intended users or beneficiaries, and develop measures of quality with respect to such criteria and factors; they should also suggest improvement and, for their own products, try proposed modifications. Communicate the process of technological design. Students should review and describe any completed piece of work and identify the stages of problem identification, solution design, implementation, and evaluation. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 Identify a problem or design an opportunity. Students should be able to identify new problems or needs and to change and improve current technological designs. Propose designs and choose between alternative solutions. Students should demonstrate thoughtful planning for a piece of technology or technique. Students should be introduced to the roles of models and simulations in these processes. Implement a proposed solution. A variety of skills can be needed in proposing a solution depending on the type of technology that is involved. The construction of artifacts can require the skills of cutting, shaping, treating, and joining common materials—such as wood, metal, plastics, and textiles. Solutions can also be implemented using computer software. Evaluate the solution and its consequences. Students should test any solution against the needs and criteria it was designed to meet. At this stage, new criteria not originally considered may be reviewed. Communicate the problem, process, and solution. Students should present their results to students, teachers, and others in a variety of ways, such as orally, in writing, and in other forms—including models, diagrams, and demonstrations.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Standard E2: Understanding about Science and Technology Benchmarks for Grades K–4 People have always had questions about their world. Science is one way of answering questions and explaining the natural world. People have always had problems and invented tools and techniques (ways of doing something) to solve problems. Trying to determine the effects of solutions helps people avoid some new problems. Scientists and engineers often work in teams with different individuals doing different things that contribute to the results. This understanding focuses primarily on teams working together and, secondarily, on the combination of scientist and engineer teams. Women and men of all ages, backgrounds, and groups engage in a variety of scientific and technological work. Tools help scientists make better observations, measurements, and equipment for investigations. They help scientists see, measure, and do things that they could not otherwise see, measure, and do. Benchmarks for Grades 5–8 Scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences. Scientists propose explanations for questions about the natural world, and engineers propose solutions relating to human problems, needs, and aspirations. Technological solutions are temporary; technologies exist within nature and so they cannot contravene physical or biological principles; technological solutions have side effects; and technologies cost, carry risks, and provide benefits. Many different people in different cultures have made and continue to make contributions to science and technology. Science and technology are reciprocal. Science helps drive technology, as it addresses questions that demand more sophisticated instruments and provides principles for better instrumentation and technique. Technology is essential to science, because it provides instruments and techniques that enable observations of objects and phenomena that are otherwise unobservable due to factors such as quantity, distance, location, size, and speed. Technology also provides tools for investigations, inquiry, and analysis.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Perfectly designed solutions do not exist. All technology solutions have trade-offs, such as safety, cost, efficiency, and back-up systems to provide safety. Risk is part of living in a highly technological world. Reducing risk often results in new technology. Technological designs have constraints. Some constraints are unavoidable, for example, properties of materials, or effects of weather and friction; other constraints limit choices in the design, for example, environmental protection, human safety, and aesthetics. Technological solutions have intended benefits and unintended consequences. Some consequences can be predicted, others cannot. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 Scientists in different disciplines ask different questions, use different methods of investigation, and accept different types of evidence to support their explanations. Many scientific investigations require the contributions of individuals from different disciplines, including engineering. New disciplines of science, such as geophysics and biochemistry often emerge at the interface of two older disciplines. Science often advances with the introduction of new technologies. Solving technological problems often results in new scientific knowledge. New technologies often extend the current levels of scientific understanding and introduce new areas of research. Creativity, imagination and a good knowledge base are all required in the work of science and engineering. Science and technology are pursued for different purposes. Scientific inquiry is driven by the desire to understand the natural world, and technological design is driven by the need to meet human needs and solve human problems. Technology, by its nature, has a more direct effect on society than science because its purpose is to solve human problems, help humans adapt, and fulfill human aspirations. Technological solutions may create new problems. Science, by its nature, answers questions that may or may not directly influence humans. Sometimes scientific advances challenge people’s beliefs and practical explanations concerning various aspects of the world. Technological knowledge is often not made public because of patents and the financial potential of the idea or invention. Scientific knowledge is made public through presentations at professional meetings and publications in scientific journals.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Standard E3: Abilities to Distinguish Between Natural Objects and Objects Made by Humans Benchmarks for Grades K–4 Some objects occur in nature; others have been designed and made by people to solve human problems and enhance the quality of life. Objects can be categorized into two groups, natural and designed. Benchmarks for Science Literacy Standards Related to “the Nature of Technology” Standard 3A: Technology and Science Benchmarks for Grades K–2 By the end of the 2nd grade, students should know that: Tools are used to do things better or more easily and to do some things that could not otherwise be done at all. In technology, tools are used to observe, measure, and make things. When trying to build something or to get something to work better, it usually helps to follow directions if there are any, or to ask someone who has done it before for suggestions. Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that: Throughout all of history, people everywhere have invented and used tools. Most tools of today are different from those of the past, but many are modifications of very ancient tools. Technology enables scientists and others to observe things that are too small or too far away to be seen without them and to study the motion of objects that are moving very rapidly or are hardly moving at all. Measuring instruments can be used to gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects and events and for designing and constructing things that will work properly. Technology extends the ability of people to change the world: to cut, shape, or put together materials; to move things from one place to

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy another; and to reach farther with their hands, voices, senses, and minds. The changes may be for survival needs such as food, shelter, and defense, for communication and transportation, or to gain knowledge and express ideas. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that: In earlier times, the accumulated information and techniques of each generation of workers were taught on the job directly to the next generation of workers. Today the knowledge base for technology can be found as well in libraries of print and electronic resources and is often taught in the classroom. Technology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space and other remote locations, sample collection and treatment, measurement, data collections and storage, computation, and communication of information. Engineers, architects, and others who engage in design and technology use scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. But they usually have to take human values and limitations into account as well. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that: Technological problems often create a demand for new scientific knowledge, and new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in new ways or to undertake entirely new lines of research. The very availability of new technology itself often sparks scientific advances. Mathematics, creativity, logic, and originality are all needed to improve technology. Technology usually affects society more directly than science because it solves practical problems and serves human needs (and may create new problems and needs). In contrast, science affects society mainly by stimulating and satisfying people’s curiosity and occasionally by enlarging or challenging their view of what the world is like.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Standard 3B: Design and Systems Benchmark for Grades K–2 By the end of the 2nd grade, students should know that: People may not be able to actually make or do everything that they can design. Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that: There is no perfect design. Designs that are best in one respect (safety or ease of use, for example) may be inferior in other ways (cost or appearance). Usually some features must be sacrificed to get others. How such trade-offs are received depends upon which features are emphasized and which are down-played. Even a good design may fail. Sometimes steps can be taken ahead of time to reduce the likelihood of failure, but it cannot be entirely eliminated. The solution to one problem may create other problems. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that: Design usually requires taking constraints into account. Some constraints, such as gravity or the properties of the materials to be used, are unavoidable. Other constraints, including economic, political, social, ethical, and aesthetic ones, limit choices. All technologies have effects other than those intended by the design, some of which may have been predictable and some not. In either case, these side effects may turn out to be unacceptable to some of the population and therefore lead to conflict between groups. Almost all control systems have inputs, outputs, and feedback. The essence of control is comparing information about what is happening to what people want to happen and then making appropriate adjustments. This procedure requires sensing information, processing it, and making changes. In almost all modern machines, microprocessors serve as centers of performance control.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Systems fail because they have faulty or poorly matched parts, are used in ways that exceed what was intended by the design, or were poorly designed to begin with. The most common ways to prevent failure are pretesting parts and procedures, overdesign, and redundancy. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that: In designing a device or process, thought should be given to how it will be manufactured, operated, maintained, replaced, and disposed of and who will sell, operate, and take care of it. The costs associated with these functions may introduce yet more constraints on the design. The value of any given technology may be different for different groups of people and at different points in time. Complex systems have layers of controls. Some controls operate particular parts of the system and some control other controls. Even fully automatic systems require human control at some point. Risk analysis is used to minimize the likelihood of unwanted side effects of a new technology. The public perception of risk may depend, however, on psychological factors as well as scientific ones. The more parts and connections a system has, the more ways it can go wrong. Complex systems usually have components to detect, back up, bypass, or compensate for minor failures. To reduce the chance of system failure, performance testing is often conducted using small-scale models, computer simulations, analogous systems, or just the parts of the system thought to be least reliable. Standard 3C: Issues in Technology Benchmarks for Grades K–2 By the end of the 2nd grade, students should know that: People, alone or in groups, are always inventing new ways to solve problems and get work done. The tools and ways of doing things that people have invented affect all aspects of life. When a group of people wants to build something or try something new, they should try to figure out ahead of time how it might affect other people.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Benchmark for Grades 3–5 By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that: Technology has been part of life on the earth since the advent of the human species. Like language, ritual, commerce, and the arts, technology is an intrinsic part of human culture, and it both shapes society and is shaped by it. The technology available to people greatly influences what their lives are like. Any invention is likely to lead to other inventions. Once an invention exists, people are likely to think up ways of using it that were never imagined at first. Transportation, communications, nutrition, sanitation, health care, entertainment, and other technologies give large numbers of people today the goods and services that once were luxuries enjoyed only by the wealthy. These benefits are not equally available to everyone. Scientific laws, engineering principles, properties of materials, and construction techniques must be taken into account in designing engineering solutions to problems. Other factors, such as cost, safety, appearance, environmental impact, and what will happen if the solution fails also must be considered. Technologies often have drawbacks as well as benefits. A technology that helps some people or organisms may hurt others—either deliberately (as weapons can) or inadvertently (as pesticides can). When harm occurs or seems likely, choices have to be made or new solutions found. Because of their ability to invent tools and processes, people have an enormous effect on the lives of other living things. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 By the end of the 8th grade, students should know that: The human ability to shape the future comes from a capacity for generating knowledge and developing new technologies—and for communicating these ideas to others. Technology cannot always provide successful solutions for problems or fulfill every human need. Throughout history, people have carried out impressive technological feats, some of which would be hard to duplicate today even with modern tools. The purposes served by these achievements have sometimes been practical, sometimes ceremonial.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Technology has strongly influenced the course of history and continues to do so. It is largely responsible for the great revolutions in agriculture, manufacturing, sanitation and medicine, warfare, transportation, information processing, and communications that have radically changed how people live. New technologies increase some risks and decrease others. Some of the same technologies that have improved the length and quality of life for many people have also brought new risks. Rarely are technology issues simple and one-sided. Relevant facts alone, even when known and available, usually do not settle matters entirely in favor of one side or another. That is because the contending groups may have different values and priorities. They may stand to gain or lose in different degrees, or may make very different predictions about what the future consequences of the proposed action will be. Societies influence what aspects of technology are developed and how these are used. People control technology (as well as science) and are responsible for its effects. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that: Social and economic forces strongly influence which technologies will be developed and used. Which will prevail is affected by many factors, such as personal values, consumer acceptance, patent laws, the availability of risk capital, the federal budget, local and national regulations, media attention, economic competition, and tax incentives. Technological knowledge is not always as freely shared as scientific knowledge unrelated to technology. Some scientists and engineers are comfortable working in situations in which some secrecy is required, but others prefer not to do so. It is generally regarded as a matter of individual choice and ethics, not one of professional ethics. In deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies or to curtail existing ones, some key questions arise concerning alternatives, risks, costs, and benefits. What alternative ways are there to achieve the same ends, and how do the alternatives compare to the plan being put forward? Who benefits and who suffers? What are the financial and social costs, do they change over time, and who bears them? What are the risks associated with using (or not using) the new technology, how serious are they, and who is in jeopardy? What human, material, and

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Build or construct an object using the design process. Investigate how things are made and how they can be improved. Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 Identify and collect information about everyday problems that can be solved by technology, and generate ideas and requirements for solving a problem. The process of designing involves presenting some possible solutions in visual form and then selecting the best solution(s) from many. Test and evaluate the solutions for the design problem. Improve the design solutions. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 Apply a design process to solve problems in and beyond the laboratory-classroom. Specify criteria and constraints for the design. Make two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations of the designed solution. Test and evaluate the design in relation to pre-established requirements, such as criteria and constraints, and refine as needed. Make a product or system and document the solution. Benchmarks Grades 9–12 Identify the design problem to solve and decide whether or not to address it. Identify criteria and constraints and determine how these will affect the design process. Refine a design by using prototypes and modeling to ensure quality, efficiency, and productivity of the final product. Evaluate the design solution using conceptual, physical, and mathematical models at various intervals of the design process in order to check for proper design and to note areas where improvements are needed. Develop and produce a product or system using a design process. Evaluate final solutions and communicate observation, processes, and

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy results of the entire design process, using verbal, graphic, quantitative, virtual, and written means, in addition to three-dimensional models. Standard 12: Use and Maintain Technological Products and Systems Benchmarks for Grades K–2 Discover how things work. Use hand tools correctly and safely and be able to name them correctly. Recognize and use everyday symbols. Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 Follow step-by-step directions to assemble a product. Select and safely use tools, products, and systems for specific tasks. Use computers to access and organize information. Use common symbols, such as numbers and words, to communicate key ideas. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 Use information provided in manuals, protocols, or by experienced people to see and understand how things work. Use tools, materials, and machines safely to diagnose, adjust, and repair systems. Use computers and calculators in various applications. Operate and maintain systems in order to achieve a given purpose. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 Document processes and procedures and communicate them to different audiences using appropriate oral and written techniques. Diagnose a system that is malfunctioning and use tools, materials, machines, and knowledge to repair it. Troubleshoot, analyze, and maintain systems to ensure safe and proper function and precision. Operate systems so that they function in the way they were designed.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Use computers and calculators to access, retrieve, organize, process, maintain, interpret, and evaluate data and information in order to communicate. Standard 13: Assess the Impact of Products and Systems Benchmarks for Grades K–2 Collect information about everyday products and systems by asking questions. Determine if the human use of a product or system creates positive or negative results. Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 Compare, contrast, and classify collected information in order to identify patterns. Investigate and assess the influence of a specific technology on the individual, family, community, and environment. Examine the trade-offs of using a product or system and decide when it could be used. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 Design and use instruments to gather data. Use data collected to analyze and interpret trends in order to identify the positive and negative effects of a technology. Identify trends and monitor potential consequences of technological development. Interpret and evaluate the accuracy of the information obtained and determine if it is useful. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 Collect information and evaluate its quality. Synthesize data, analyze trends, and draw conclusions regarding the effect of technology on the individual, society, and environment.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Use assessment techniques, such as trend analysis and experimentation, to make decisions about the future development of technology. Design forecasting techniques to evaluate the results of altering natural systems. Standards Related to the Design World Standard 14: Medical Technologies Benchmarks for Grades K–2 Vaccinations protect people from getting certain diseases. Medicine helps people who are sick to get better. There are many products designed specifically to help people take care of themselves. Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 Vaccines are designed to prevent diseases from developing and spreading; medicines are designed to relieve symptoms and stop diseases from developing. Technological advances have made it possible to create new devices, to repair or replace certain parts of the body, and to provide a means for mobility. Many tools and devices have been designed to help provide clues about health and to provide a safe environment. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 Advances and innovations in medical technologies are used to improve healthcare. Sanitation processes used in the disposal of medical products help to protect people from harmful organisms and disease, and shape the ethics of medical safety. The vaccines developed for use in immunization require specialized technologies to support environments in which a sufficient amount of vaccines is produced. Genetic engineering involves modifying the structure of DNA to produce novel genetic make-ups.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 Medical technologies include prevention and rehabilitation, vaccines and pharmaceuticals, medical and surgical procedures, genetic engineering, and the systems within which health is protected and maintained. Telemedicine reflects the convergence of technological advances in a number of fields, including medicine, telecommunications, virtual presence, computer engineering, informatics, artificial intelligence, robotics, materials science, and perceptual psychology. The sciences of biochemistry and molecular biology have made it possible to manipulate the genetic information found in living creatures. Standard 15: Agricultural and Related Biotechnologies Benchmarks for Grades K–2 The use of technologies in agriculture makes it possible for food to be available year round and to conserve resources. There are many different tools necessary to control and make up the parts of an ecosystem. Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 Artificial ecosystems are human-made environments that are designed to function as a unit and are comprised of humans, plants, and animals. Most agricultural waste can be recycled. Many processes used in agriculture require different procedures, products, or systems. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 Technological advances in agriculture directly affect the time and number of people required to produce food for a large population. A wide range of specialized equipment and practices is used to improve the production of food, fiber, fuel, and other useful products and in the care of animals. Biotechnology applies the principles of biology to create commercial products or processes.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Artificial ecosystems are human-made complexes that replicate some aspects of the natural environment. The development of refrigeration, freezing, dehydration, preservation, and irradiation provide long-term storage of food and reduce the health risks caused by tainted food. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 Agriculture includes a combination of businesses that use a wide array of products and systems to produce, process, and distribute food, fiber, fuel, chemical, and other useful products. Biotechnology has applications in such areas as agriculture, pharmaceuticals, food and beverages, medicine, energy, the environment, and genetic engineering. Conservation is the process of controlling soil erosion, reducing sediment in waterways, conserving water, and improving water quality. The engineering design and management of agricultural systems require knowledge of artificial ecosystems and the effects of technological development on flora and fauna. Standard 16: Energy and Power Technologies Benchmarks for Grades K–2 Energy comes in many forms. Energy should not be wasted. Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 Energy comes in different forms. Tools, machines, products, and systems use energy in order to do work. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 Energy is the capacity to do work. Energy can be used to do work, using many processes. Power is the rate at which energy is converted from one form to another or transferred from one place to another, or the rate at which work is done.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Power systems are used to drive and provide propulsion to other technological products and systems. Much of the energy used in our environment is not used efficiently. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 Energy cannot be created nor destroyed; however, it can be converted from one form to another. Energy can be grouped into major forms: thermal, radiant, electrical, mechanical, chemical, nuclear, and others. It is impossible to build an engine to perform work that does not exhaust thermal energy to the surroundings. Energy resources can be renewable or nonrenewable. Power systems must have a source of energy, a process, and loads. Standard 17: Information and Communication Technologies Benchmarks for Grades K–2 Information is data that has been organized. Technology enables people to communicate by sending and receiving information over a distance. People use symbols when they communicate by technology. Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 The processing of information through the use of technology can be used to help humans make decisions and solve problems. Information can be acquired and sent through a variety of technological sources, including print and electronic media. Communication technology is the transfer of messages among people and/or machines over distances through the use of technology. Letters, characters, icons, and signs are symbols that represent ideas, quantities, elements, and operations. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 Information and communication systems allow information to be trans-

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy ferred from human to human, human to machine, and machine to human. Communication systems are made up of a source, encoder, transmitter, receiver, decoder, and destination. The design of a message is influenced by such factors as intended audience, medium, purpose, and the nature of the message. The use of symbols, measurements, and drawings promotes a clear communication by providing a common language to express ideas. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 Information and communication technologies include the inputs, processes, and outputs associated with sending and receiving information. Information and communication systems allow information to be transferred from human to human, human to machine, machine to human, and machine to machine. Information and communication systems can be used to inform, persuade, entertain, control, manage, and educate. Communication systems are made up of source, encoder, transmitter, receiver, decoder, storage, retrieval, and destination. There are many ways to communicate information, such as graphic and electronic means. Technological knowledge and processes are communicated using symbols, measurement, conventions, icons, graphic images, and languages that incorporate a variety of visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli. Standard 18: Transportation Technologies Benchmarks for Grades K–2 A transportation system has many parts that work together to help people travel. Vehicles move people or goods from one place to another in water, air or space, and on land. Transportation vehicles need to be cared for to prolong their use. Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 The use of transportation allows people and goods to be moved from place to place.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy A transportation system may lose efficiency or fail if one part is missing or malfunctioning or if a subsystem is not working. Benchmarks forGrades 6–8 Transporting people and goods involves a combination of individuals and vehicles. Transportation vehicles are made up of subsystems, such as structural propulsion, suspension, guidance, control, and support, that must function together for a system to work effectively. Governmental regulations often influence the design and operation of transportation systems. Processes, such as receiving, holding, storing, loading, moving, unloading, delivering, evaluating, marketing, managing, communicating, and using conventions are necessary for the entire transportation system to operate efficiently. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 Transportation plays a vital role in the operation of other technologies, such as manufacturing, construction, communication, health and safety, and agriculture. Intermodalism is the use of different modes of transportation, such as highways, railways, and waterways as part of an interconnected system that can move people and goods easily from one mode to another. Transportation services and methods have led to a population that is regularly on the move. The design of intelligent and non-intelligent transportation systems depends on many processes and innovative techniques. Standard 19: Manufacturing Technologies Benchmarks for Grades K–2 Manufacturing systems produce products in quantity. Manufactured products are designed.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 Processing systems convert natural materials into products Manufacturing processes include designing products, gathering resources, and using tools to separate, form, and combine materials in order to produce products. Manufacturing enterprises exist because of a consumption of goods. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 Manufacturing systems use mechanical processes that change the form of materials through the processes of separating, forming, combining, and conditioning them. Manufactured goods may be classified as durable and non-durable. The manufacturing process includes the designing, development, making, and servicing of products and systems. Chemical technologies are used to modify or alter chemical substances. Materials must first be located before they can be extracted from the earth through such processes as harvesting, drilling, and mining. Marketing a product involves informing the public about it as well as assisting in its sales and distribution. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 Servicing keeps products in good operating condition. Materials have different qualities and may be classified as natural, synthetic, or mixed. Durable goods are designed to operate for a long period of time, while non-durable goods are designed to operate for a short period of time. Manufacturing systems may be classified into types, such as customized production, batch production, and continuous production. The interchangeability of parts increases the effectiveness of manufacturing processes. Chemical technologies provide a means for humans to alter or modify materials and to produce chemical products. Marketing involves establishing a product’s identity, conducting research on its potential, advertising it, distributing it, and selling it.

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Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy Standard 20: Construction Technologies Benchmarks for Grades K–2 People live, work, and go to school in buildings, which are of different types: houses, apartments, office buildings, and schools. The type of structure determines how the parts are put together. Benchmarks for Grades 3–5 Modern communities are usually planned according to guidelines. Structures need to be maintained. Many systems are used in buildings. Benchmarks for Grades 6–8 The selection of designs for structures is based on factors such as building laws and codes, style, convenience, cost, climate, and function. Structures rest on a foundation. Some structures are temporary, while others are permanent. Buildings generally contain a variety of subsystems. Benchmarks for Grades 9–12 Infrastructure is the underlying base or basic framework of a system. Structures are constructed using a variety of processes and procedures. The design of structures includes a number of requirements. Structures require maintenance, alteration, or renovation periodically to improve them or to alter their intended use. Structures can include prefabricated materials.