Benchmarks for Grades 9–12

By the end of the 12th grade, students should know that:

  • New varieties of farm plants and animals have been engineered by manipulating their genetic instructions to produce new characteristics.

  • Government sometimes intervenes in matching agricultural supply to demand in an attempt to ensure a stable, high-quality, and inexpensive food supply. Regulations are often also designed to protect farmers from abrupt changes in farming conditions and from competition by farmers in other countries.

  • Agricultural technology requires trade-offs between increased production and environmental harm and between efficient production and social values. In the past century, agricultural technology led to a huge shift of population from farms to cities and a great change in how people live and work.

Standard 8B:
Materials and Manufacturing
Benchmarks for Grades K–2

By the end of the 2nd grade, students should know that:

  • Some kinds of materials are better than others for making any particular thing. Materials that are better in some ways (such as stronger or cheaper) may be worse in other ways (heavier or harder to cut).

  • Several steps are usually involved in making things.

  • Tools are used to help make things, and some things cannot be made at all without tools. Each kind of tool has a special purpose.

  • Some materials can be used over again.

Benchmarks for Grades 3–5

By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that:

  • Naturally occurring materials such as wood, clay, cotton, and animal skins may be processed or combined with other materials to change their properties.

  • Through science and technology, a wide variety of materials that do not appear in nature at all have become available, ranking from steel to nylon to liquid crystals.

  • Discarded products contribute to the problem of waste disposal. Some-



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