• All products and systems are subject to failure. Many products and systems, however, can be fixed.

Benchmarks for Grades 3–5
  • Troubleshooting is a way of finding out why something does not work so that it can be fixed.

  • Invention and innovation are creative ways to turn ideas into real things.

  • The process of experimentation, which is common in science, can also be used to solve technological problems.

Benchmarks for Grades 6–8
  • Troubleshooting is a problem-solving method used to identify the cause of a malfunction in a technological system.

  • Invention is a process of turning ideas and imagination into devices and systems. Innovation is the process of modifying an existing product or system to improve it.

  • Some technological problems are best solved through experimentation.

Benchmarks for Grades 9–12
  • Research and development is a specific problem-solving approach that is used intensively in business and industry to prepare devices and systems for the marketplace.

  • Technological problems must be researched before they can be solved.

  • Not all problems are technological, and not every problem can be solved using technology.

  • Many technological problems require a multidisciplinary approach.

Standards Related to Abilities for a Technological World

Standard 11:
Apply the Design Process
Benchmarks for Grades K–2
  • Brainstorm people’s needs and wants and pick some problems that can be solved through the design process.



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