• Build or construct an object using the design process.

  • Investigate how things are made and how they can be improved.

Benchmarks for Grades 3–5
  • Identify and collect information about everyday problems that can be solved by technology, and generate ideas and requirements for solving a problem.

  • The process of designing involves presenting some possible solutions in visual form and then selecting the best solution(s) from many.

  • Test and evaluate the solutions for the design problem.

  • Improve the design solutions.

Benchmarks for Grades 6–8
  • Apply a design process to solve problems in and beyond the laboratory-classroom.

  • Specify criteria and constraints for the design.

  • Make two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations of the designed solution.

  • Test and evaluate the design in relation to pre-established requirements, such as criteria and constraints, and refine as needed.

  • Make a product or system and document the solution.

Benchmarks Grades 9–12
  • Identify the design problem to solve and decide whether or not to address it.

  • Identify criteria and constraints and determine how these will affect the design process.

  • Refine a design by using prototypes and modeling to ensure quality, efficiency, and productivity of the final product.

  • Evaluate the design solution using conceptual, physical, and mathematical models at various intervals of the design process in order to check for proper design and to note areas where improvements are needed.

  • Develop and produce a product or system using a design process.

  • Evaluate final solutions and communicate observation, processes, and



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