• Artificial ecosystems are human-made complexes that replicate some aspects of the natural environment.

  • The development of refrigeration, freezing, dehydration, preservation, and irradiation provide long-term storage of food and reduce the health risks caused by tainted food.

Benchmarks for Grades 9–12
  • Agriculture includes a combination of businesses that use a wide array of products and systems to produce, process, and distribute food, fiber, fuel, chemical, and other useful products.

  • Biotechnology has applications in such areas as agriculture, pharmaceuticals, food and beverages, medicine, energy, the environment, and genetic engineering.

  • Conservation is the process of controlling soil erosion, reducing sediment in waterways, conserving water, and improving water quality.

  • The engineering design and management of agricultural systems require knowledge of artificial ecosystems and the effects of technological development on flora and fauna.

Standard 16:
Energy and Power Technologies
Benchmarks for Grades K–2
  • Energy comes in many forms.

  • Energy should not be wasted.

Benchmarks for Grades 3–5
  • Energy comes in different forms.

  • Tools, machines, products, and systems use energy in order to do work.

Benchmarks for Grades 6–8
  • Energy is the capacity to do work.

  • Energy can be used to do work, using many processes.

  • Power is the rate at which energy is converted from one form to another or transferred from one place to another, or the rate at which work is done.

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