Standard 20:
Construction Technologies
Benchmarks for Grades K–2
  • People live, work, and go to school in buildings, which are of different types: houses, apartments, office buildings, and schools.

  • The type of structure determines how the parts are put together.

Benchmarks for Grades 3–5
  • Modern communities are usually planned according to guidelines.

  • Structures need to be maintained.

  • Many systems are used in buildings.

Benchmarks for Grades 6–8
  • The selection of designs for structures is based on factors such as building laws and codes, style, convenience, cost, climate, and function.

  • Structures rest on a foundation.

  • Some structures are temporary, while others are permanent.

  • Buildings generally contain a variety of subsystems.

Benchmarks for Grades 9–12
  • Infrastructure is the underlying base or basic framework of a system.

  • Structures are constructed using a variety of processes and procedures.

  • The design of structures includes a number of requirements.

  • Structures require maintenance, alteration, or renovation periodically to improve them or to alter their intended use.

  • Structures can include prefabricated materials.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement