Hortensia Amaro, PhD, is a distinguished professor of health sciences at the Bouve College of Health Sciences at Northeastern University (NEU) and director of the Institute on Urban Health Research at NEU. She received her doctoral degree from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1982 and was awarded an honorary doctoral degree in humane letters by Simmons College in 1994. Over the last 20 years, Dr. Amaro’s work has focused on improving the connections between public health research and public health practice. Her research has focused on epidemiological and community-based studies of alcohol and drug use among adolescents and adults, on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention programs, and on substance abuse and mental health treatment issues for women. In 1996, Dr. Amaro was appointed to the Board of the Boston Public Health Commission by Mayor Thomas Menino. She currently serves as vice-chair of the board. She has recently served as an appointed member of the National Advisory Council of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dr. Amaro has also served on several committees at the National Research Council related to social and behavioral research; substance abuse, mental health, and AIDS; and legal and ethical issues for women in clinical studies.


Patricia Blair, PhD, JD, is vice-president and university counsel at the University of Texas Health Center in Tyler, Texas and adjunct associate professor in the School of Nursing. She is also university compliance office and university ethics officer. Her research has focused on nursing ethics, law and policy; legal and ethical issues related to correctional health care; and the provision of health-care services in prison settings. Dr. Blair is a member of the board of directors of the American Association of Nurse Attorneys. She received her MSN from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, her JD from Texas Southern University, her LLM in Health Law and Policy from the University of Houston Law School, and her PhD from the University of Texas Medical Branch in Clinical Sciences Health Services Research with a focus on health disparities research.


Steve Cambra, Jr., is co-owner of Cambra, Larson & Associates, a criminal justice consulting firm that advises prison facilities on compliance with federal and state regulations. He has spent 35 years working in the corrections industry. Mr. Cambra began as a corrections officer in 1970 at the California Men’s Colony and was gradually promoted through management and administrative ranks. He served as warden of Pelican Bay State Prison for almost 3 years before being promoted to chief deputy director for field operations with the California Department of Corrections. Mr. Cambra also served as director of the California Department of Corrections. In this position, he was responsible for approximately 122,000 parolees and 160,000 inmates in a system that included 33 prisons, 38 conserva-



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