TABLE 2-2 Persons Under Jail Supervision, by Confinement Status and Type of Program, Midyear 1995, 2000, and 2002–2004

Confinement Status and Type of Program

Number of Persons Under Jail Supervision

1995

2000

2002

2003

2004

Total

541,913

687,033

737,912

762,672

784,538

Held in jail

507,044

621,149

665,475

691,301

713,990

Supervised outside of jail facilitya

34,869

65,884

72,437

71,371

70,548

Weekender programs

1,909

14,523

17,955

12,111

11,589

Electronic monitoring

6,788

10,782

9,706

12,678

11,689

Home detentionb

1,376

332

1,037

594

1,173

Day reporting

1,283

3,969

5,010

7,965

6,627

Community service

10,253

13,592

13,918

17,102

13,171

Other pretrial supervision

3,229

6,279

8,702

11,452

14,370

Other work programsc

9,144

8,011

5,190

4,498

7,208

Treatment programsd

NA

5,714

1,256

1,891

2,208

Other/unspecified

887

2,682

9,663

3,080

2,513

NOTE: NA, not available.

aExcludes persons supervised by a probation or parole agency.

bIncludes only those without electronic monitoring.

cIncludes persons in work-release programs, work gangs, and other work alternative programs.

dIncludes persons under drug, alcohol, mental health, and other medical treatment.

SOURCE: BJS, 2005c.

settings outside of a jail facility has doubled since 1995 (see Table 2-2). This point is important for the Chapter 4 discussion regarding the definition of the term prisoner. In 2004, jail authorities supervised 70,548 men and women in the community in work-release, weekend reporting, electronic monitoring, and other alternative programs.

Why Has the Prisoner Population Grown?

The exponential growth of prison and jail populations in the last two decades has many causes. Some relate to changes in federal and state sentencing policies, and some reflect the actions of American society in those years as it engaged in a war against drugs. BJS reports that, in 1997, 21 percent of state prisoners and more than 60 percent of federal prisoners were incarcerated for drug offenses (BJS, 1999c). Between 1995 and 2003, 49 percent of the total growth in the federal prison population was from drug offenses (BJS, 2005a). Michael Jacobson, former Commissioner of the



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