S-2: Graduate students should explore ways to broaden their experience by gaining “requisite” knowledge in one or more fields in addition to their primary field.
P-1: Postdoctoral scholars can actively exploit formal and informal means of gaining interdisciplinary experiences during their postdoctoral appointments through such mechanisms as networking events and internships in industrial and nonacademic settings.
P-2: Postdoctoral scholars interested in interdisciplinary work should seek to identify institutions and mentors favorable to interdisciplinary research (IDR).
R-1: Researchers and faculty members desiring to work on IDR, education, and training projects should immerse themselves in the languages, cultures, and knowledge of their collaborators in IDR.
R-2: Researchers and faculty members who hire postdoctoral scholars from other fields should assume the responsibility for educating them in the new specialties and become acquainted with the postdoctoral scholars’ knowledge and techniques.
A-1: Educators should facilitate IDR by providing educational and training opportunities for undergraduates, graduate students, and postdoctoral scholars, such as relating foundation courses, data gathering and analysis, and research activities to other fields of study and to society at large.
I-1: Academic institutions should develop new and strengthen existing policies and practices that lower or remove barriers to IDR and scholarship, including developing joint programs with industry and government and nongovernment organizations.
I-2: Beyond the measures suggested in I-1, institutions should experiment with more innovative policies and structures to facilitate IDR, making appropriate use of lessons learned from the performance of IDR in industrial and national laboratories.