Hunter DJ (2005). Gene-environment interactions in human diseases. Nature Reviews 6:287-298.

Kaufman JS, Cooper RS (1999). Seeking causal explanations in social epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology 150:113-120.

Levins R, Lewontin R (1985). The Dialectical Biologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Li Y, Millikan RC, Bell DA, Cui L, Tse CJ, Newman B, Conway K (2005). Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk among African American women and white women in North Carolina: a population-based case-control study. Breast Cancer Research 7:R12-R18.

Mackie JL (1974). Cement of the Universe. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.

Maldonado G, Greenland S (2002). Estimating causal effects. International Journal of Epidemiology 31:422-429.

Olshan AF, Weissler MC, Watson MA, Bell DA (2001). Risk of head and neck cancer and the alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype. Carcinogenesis 22:57-61.

Rauscher G, Sandler DP, Poole C, Pankow J, Shore D, Bloomfield CD, Olshan AF (2003). Is family history of breast cancer a marker of susceptibility to exposures in the incidence of de novo adult acute leukemia? Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 12:289-294.

Rothman KJ (1976). Reviews and commentary: causes. American Journal of Epidemiology 104:587-592.

Rothman KJ, Greenland S (1998). Modern Epidemiology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.

Rothman KJ, Poole C (1988). A strengthening programme for weak associations. International Journal of Epidemiology 17:955-959.

Rubin DB (2004). Direct and indirect causal effects via potential outcomes. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 31:161-170.

Shadish WR, Cook TD, Campbell DT (2002). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Shen J, Gammon MD, Terry MB, Wang L, Wang Q, Zhang F, Teitelbaum SL, Eng SM, Sagive SK, Gaudet MM, Neugut AI, Santella RM (2005). Polymorphisms in XRCC1 modify the association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts, cigarette smoking, dietary antioxidants, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 14:336-342.

Susser E, Schwartz S (2005). Are social causes so different from all other causes? A comment on Sander Greenland. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2:4.

Tennant C, Bebbington P (1978). The social causation of depression: a critique of the work of Brown and his colleagues. Psychological Medicine 8:565-575.

Zimmerman R (2003). Familial aggregation study designs: causes of discrepancies in case-control and reconstructed cohort effect estimates. Ph.D. Dissertation: Columbia University, AAT 3071403.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement