contexts such as age, sex, diet, and physical activity that modify the relationship with risk. For the most part, we are still at the stage of documenting the complexity, finding examples and types of genetic susceptibility genes, understanding disease heterogeneity, and postulating ways to develop models of risk that use the totality of what we know about human biology, from our genomes to our ecologies to model risk.

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

The study of CVD can be used to illustrate the issues that are encountered in using genetic information in order to understand the etiology of the most common chronic diseases as well as in identifying those at highest risk of developing these diseases. The majority of CVD cases have a complex multifactorial etiology, and even full knowledge of an individual’s genetic makeup cannot predict with certainty the onset, progression, or severity of disease (Sing et al., 2003). Disease develops as a consequence of interactions between a person’s genotype and exposures to environmental agents, which influence cardiovascular phenotypes beginning at conception and continuing throughout adulthood. CVD research has found many high-risk environmental agents and hundreds of genes, each with many variations that are thought to influence disease risk. As the number of interacting agents involved increases, a smaller number of cases of disease will be found to have the same etiology and be associated with a particular genotype (Sing et al., 2003). The many feedback mechanisms and interactions of agents from the genome through intermediate biochemical and physiological subsystems with exposure to environmental agents contribute to the emergence of a given individual’s clinical phenotype. In attempting to sort out the relative contributions of genes and environment to CVD, a large array of factors must be considered, from the influence of genes on cholesterol (e.g., LDL levels) to psychosocial factors such as stress and anger. Although hundreds of genes have been implicated in the initiation, progression, and clinical manifestation of CVD, relatively little is known about how a person’s environment interacts with these genes to tip the balance between the atherogenic and anti-atherogenic processes that result in clinically manifested CVD. Please see Chapters 4 and 6 for further discussion of effects of social environment on CVD.

It is well known that many social and behavioral factors ranging from socioeconomic status, job stress, and depression, to smoking, exercise, and diet affect cardiovascular disease risk (see Chapters 2, 3, and 6 for more detailed discussion of these factors). As more studies of gene-environment interaction consider these factors as part of the “environment,” which are examined in conjunction with genetic variations, multiple intellectual and methodological challenges arise. First, how are the social factors embodied



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