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Vladikavkaz, Nazran, Beslan). These cities are the focus of 90–95 percent of terrorist attacks.

Following is a breakdown of targets of urban terrorism:1

  • Eighty-five to ninety percent of the targets are public transportation systems (metro, buses, trains, airplanes) and military transportation systems (automobiles, armored personnel carriers, tanks, helicopters).

  • Three to five percent are mass gatherings of people (markets, theaters, stadiums, shops).

  • Two to four percent are gas and oil pipelines in urban zones.

  • One to three percent are power supply lines and transformer electrical stations.

Russia faces extraordinary danger in view of the considerable increase (by three to five times) in the quantity and gravity of terrorist attacks in comparison with the increase in the quantity and impact of natural and technogenic disasters. In this sense, the year 2004 was most significant, given the tragedies in Beslan and Moscow and on civilian aircraft, which involved the loss of hundreds of people, including children.

These terrorism trends in Russia have led to the need to implement comprehensive organizational, programmatic, scientific, and social measures, which will be described in more detail later in this meeting by our Russian experts. This paper mentions a few measures in which the Russian Academy of Sciences and the special working group under the president of the Russian Academy of Sciences provided leadership and supervision:

  • meeting of the Interdisciplinary Committee on Disasters, at which the Report of the Russian Academy of Sciences on Problems of Technological Terrorism was presented (2000)

  • Scientific and Industrial Conference on Technological Terrorism and Terrorist Threat Prevention Methods (2003)

  • meetings of the Working Group on Risk Analysis and Safety Problems of the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, including discussion of general and special questions of terrorism prevention (tagging of explosive materials, controlled detonators, creation of protection systems) (2001–2004)

  • International Conference on the Safety of Large Cities (2003)

  • special seminar within the framework of the Committee on Scientific and

1

This breakdown covers the period from 1998 to 2002. See Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations. 2004. P. 313 in Problems of Technological Terrorism and Methods of Countering Terrorist Threats: Compilation of Materials from a Scientific and Practical Conference. Moscow: Institute of Mechanical Engineering of the Russian Academy of Sciences.



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