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Paveletskaya Station, all of which resulted in more than 3,000 victims, about 700 of whom were killed.

These events demonstrated that terrorist acts are increasingly moving from the realm of potential threats into that of actual extreme situations. In our opinion it was the lack of the appropriate reaction from the world community to the fall 1999 terrorist acts in Moscow that led to the tragic events of September 11, 2001, in the United States, events that once again showed that terrorism has no nationality, that it is international in nature, and that no state is insured against it.


In addition, accidents at facilities that use dangerous chemical substances in their production processes represent another serious potential danger for the city. Indeed, accidents at such facilities could lead to the chemical contamination of large sections of the city.

For example, on April 26, 2004, an accident involving the release of ammonia into the atmosphere occurred at one of the city’s dangerous facilities. Subsequently analyzing the causes of the accident, one may conclude that it occurred due to the most egregious violations of the rules of technological safety. In the interests of obtaining the greatest possible profits, the management of the enterprise neglected to carry out mandated work and maintenance on systems and utility lines at the facility. An explosion resulted, and the production facilities were destroyed. Only the wise actions of the city’s response services and favorable meteorological conditions prevented the contamination cloud from spreading over neighboring enterprises and residential blocks.

In contrast, our greatest efforts were required to eliminate the consequences of the bombings of the apartment buildings on Guryanov Street (September 9, 1999) and Kashirskoe Shosse (September 13, 1999) and to extinguish the fire in the Ostankino television tower (August 27, 2000).

Using these examples, I would like to explain the organization of the system of efforts to eliminate the consequences of extreme situations.

From the moment that the first search-and-rescue units and fire crews arrived on the scene, the Main Operational Headquarters for Eliminating the Consequences of Emergency Situations in the City of Moscow deployed its personnel and organized cooperation with the local authorities, the Moscow City Commission on Eliminating the Consequences of Emergency Situations, the city emergency services, the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations, and other federal agencies. Thus, a two-level management system has been organized and has proven its effectiveness.

Fire crews and search-and-rescue units from the Moscow Main Administration for Civil Defense and Emergency Situations, personnel and resources from the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations, and the city emergency services were directly deployed for rescue operations. This created a group including a

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