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  • local coordination of security approaches in specific areas of a city that encompass significant potential targets of terrorist attacks

  • urban security-university interfaces

  • public awareness, communication, and education

  • identification and protection of critical terrorist supplies

  • dual-purpose integration


Organization of the systems involved in the array of urban security tasks, from prevention to emergency response to recovery, may vary from city to city and from country to country, but the imperative in every case is that in an emergency the command and control of those systems be coordinated and unified. A key question is where the decision making resides and how the staff of the top decision makers is organized to coordinate the responses (Figure 1). This has to do specifically with the architecture of the relation between the city’s top decision makers—typically the mayor—and the first responders and emergency managers. Figure 1 shows three examples of architecture from among the many possible. They are characterized by different schemes for relating the first responders

FIGURE 1 Three command and control architectures.

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