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ities and coordination of work undertaken in government, scientific institutions, and industry.

Security considerations should become a key factor in the design of infrastructure and systems (including tunnels, underground parking structures, and elevated rail systems, as well as the transport system elements mentioned above), and should incorporate continual review of the implications of new systems and improvements as they are put in place.

Taking the next steps in interacademy cooperation will be facilitated by

  • continuation of periodic information exchange

  • cooperation in research

  • joint expert analysis in order to provide independent opinions regarding major, promising projects for the development of transport systems

OBSERVATIONS

Priorities for continued bilateral cooperation include

  • encouragement of research priorities as noted above

  • sharing of intelligence with local and regional agencies (local agencies and transport systems personnel need access at some level to information about potential threats)

  • development of independent research institutes and red teams to evaluate strategies and responses

  • development of standards, methodologies, and data sources for risk assessment studies at a level of investment related to the amount of potential damage and the relationship of the funding of studies to the economic consequences of terrorist incidents; more study is required to establish the level of expenditure that would be appropriate (possibly in the neighborhood of 1 percent of project cost) and to identify potential sources of funding for these costs

  • more financial support for equipment, training, and other needs of first responders, transportation system employees, and the public



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