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COUNTERING URBAN TERRORISM IN RUSSIA AND THE UNITED STATES

Proceedings of a Workshop

Glenn E. Schweitzer and A. Chelsea Sharber, Editors

Committee on Counterterrorism Challenges for Russia and the United States

Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

In cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop COUNTERING URBAN TERRORISM IN RUSSIA AND THE UNITED STATES Proceedings of a Workshop Glenn E. Schweitzer and A. Chelsea Sharber, Editors Committee on Counterterrorism Challenges for Russia and the United States Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES In cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. B 7075.R02 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10245-6 A limited number of copies are available from the Office for Central Europe and Eurasia, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-2644. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMITTEE ON COUNTERTERRORISM CHALLENGES FOR RUSSIA AND THE UNITED STATES Siegfried S. Hecker, Director Emeritus, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Visiting Professor, Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, Chair Wm. A. Wulf, President, National Academy of Engineering, Ex-officio Robert McC. Adams, Adjunct Professor, University of California at San Diego John F. Ahearne, Director, Ethics Program, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Lewis M. Branscomb, Aetna Professor of Public Policy and Corporate Management, Emeritus, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic University Anita K. Jones, Lawrence R. Quarles Professor of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia Michael Moodie, Independent Consultant and Former President, Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute Russ Zajtchuk, President, Chicago Hospitals International National Research Council Staff Glenn E. Schweitzer, Program Director A. Chelsea Sharber, Senior Program Associate Kelly Robbins, Senior Program Officer Christopher Holt, Senior Program Assistant RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES STANDING COMMITTEE ON COUNTERTERRORISM Academician Yevgeny Velikhov, Director, Kurchatov State Research Center of Atomic Energy, Chair RAS Corresponding Member Leonid Bolshov, Director, Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Academician Nikolay Laverov, Vice President, Russian Academy of Sciences Academician Nikolay Platé, Vice President, Russian Academy of Sciences Academician Aleksandr Spirin, Director, Protein Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences

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Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop Academician Konstantin V. Frolov, Director, Institute of Mechanical Engineering of the Russian Academy of Sciences RAS Corresponding Member Valery Tishkov, Director, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences Mr. Gennady Kovalenko, Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences Dr. Renat S. Akchurin, Chief of the Cardiovascular Surgery Department, Cardiology Research Center Russian Academy of Sciences Staff Yury K. Shiyan, Chief Expert, Head of the Desk on Cooperation with North and Latin American Countries, Foreign Relations Department

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Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop Preface This report presents the proceedings of the third U.S.-Russian interacademy workshop on the general theme of countering terrorism. The first report was published in 2002 under the title High-Impact Terrorism: Proceedings of a Russian-American Workshop. The second report was published in 2004 under the title Terrorism—Reducing Vulnerabilities and Improving Responses: U.S.-Russian Workshop Proceedings. The third report focuses on many important dimensions of urban terrorism, including the integration of response activities of different government organizations should a terrorist attack occur. The Carnegie Corporation of New York has generously supported all three of the workshops and the preparation of the reports. The National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) began cooperation in this field in 1999. In 2000, National Research Council (NRC) and RAS committees were established to lead the effort. The first workshop was then held in Moscow in June 2001. Since September 11, 2001, terrorism-related studies and other activities of the National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences have increased significantly, and the second and third reports have built on the expanded efforts on both sides of the ocean. The second workshop was also held in Moscow in March 2003. The third workshop was held in Washington, D.C., at the end of January and beginning of February 2005. This workshop was of particular interest since it included presentations by a number of specialists who have operational responsibilities for countering terrorism in each of the countries whereas presentations at previous workshops were made primarily by specialists who serve as advisers to governments.

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Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop Prior to the third workshop, three working groups of U.S. and Russian experts met to consider terrorism threats and responses associated with cybersecurity, ground transportation systems, and energy systems. These working groups had opportunities to meet with a number of U.S. specialists in each respective field and to visit facilities of particular interest in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. Appendix A sets forth the programs of the three working groups and of the plenary sessions of the workshop. Appendix A also identifies the U.S. and Russian participants in the workshop and the panels. Following the workshop, the Russian specialists traveled to New York City where they had additional opportunities to become familiar with terrorism-related activities of fire, police, and transportation officials and specialists; review the events of September 11, 2001; inspect developments at Ground Zero; and discuss terrorism issues with specialists at Polytechnic University. The direct involvement of first responders in several of the meetings in New York was of particular interest to the Russian participants in the program. Appendix A sets forth the program in New York. We have not attempted to summarize the papers that were presented at the workshop in these proceedings. We considered them to be of sufficient importance to be included in their entirety. The presentations and discussions during the working group meetings were summarized during the plenary session and these summaries are included. Included in Appendix B is a report of the activities of five subcommittees established by the NRC and RAS committees to consider various aspects of the terrorism challenge on a continuing basis, with progress reports presented at each workshop. These subcommittees address radiological terrorism, biological terrorism, cyberterrorism, urban terrorism, and the roots of terrorism. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS As noted above, this publication was made possible by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. The statements made and views expressed are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the positions of the Carnegie Corporation, the National Academies, the Russian Academy of Sciences, or other organizations where the authors are employed. This volume has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of selected papers: Dorothy Denning, Naval Postgraduate School; James Hill, National

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Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop Institute of Standards and Technology; Darleane Hoffman, University of California at Berkeley; Martin Hugh-Jones, Louisiana State University; David McIntyre, Texas A&M University; Paul Pillar, Georgetown University; Charles Tilly, Columbia University; and William Wallace, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the individual papers. Responsibility for the final content of the papers rests with the individual authors. Special thanks are extended to Kelly Robbins for her translation of the Russian language papers into English and to Jan Dee Summers for her work in editing these proceedings. Siegfried S. Hecker Chair, NRC Committee on Counterterrorism Challenges for Russia and the United States Glenn E. Schweitzer Director, Office for Central Europe and Eurasia, National Research Council

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Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop Contents     Report of U.S.-Russian Working Group on Energy Vulnerabilities   1     Report of U.S.-Russian Working Group on Transportation Vulnerabilities   5     Report of U.S.-Russian Working Group on Cyberterrorism Issues   9     Cybersecurity and Urban Terrorism—Vulnerability of the Emergency Responders   14     News and Terrorism: Communicating in a Crisis   25     Problems of Urban Terrorism in Russia   34

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Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop     Terrorist Acts in Moscow: Experience and Lessons in Eliminating Their Consequences   40     Critical Integration and Coordination Issues in Urban Security   46     Special Characteristics of Firefighting in Urban Areas   60     A Decision Informatics Approach to Urban Emergency Management   79     Efforts of Russian Ministries in Implementing Measures to Prevent Acts of Terrorism   95     Safety and Security in Megacities   106     The Role of Science and Technology in Homeland Security and Countering Terrorism: Overview of Key Activities at the National Academies   116     Does the Emergence of Insurgencies Provide Lessons for Terrorism?   128     Unauthorized Use of Radiation Sources: Measures to Prevent Attacks and Mitigate Consequences   133     Other Dimensions of Radiological Terrorism   151     Biological Terrorism: Regional Preparedness   160     On the Events in Beslan   167

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Countering Urban Terrorism in Russia and the United States: Proceedings of a Workshop     Measuring Progress, or Lack Thereof, in Combating Terrorism   183     On Efforts to Counter International Terrorism in the Russian Federation and Possible Areas of U.S.-Russian Cooperation in this Area   188     Cybercrime and the Training of Specialists to Combat It in Russia   197     Methodology for Assessing the Risks of Terrorism   207     Appendixes          A  Agenda and List of Participants   225      B  Russian Academy of Sciences-U.S. National Academies Joint Committees on Countering Terrorism Glenn E. Schweitzer   238

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