Biomarker of effect: A measurable biochemical, physiologic, behavioral, or other alteration in an organism that, depending on the magnitude, can be recognized as associated with an established or possible health impairment or disease.

Biomarker of exposure: The chemical or its metabolite or the product of an interaction between a chemical and some target molecule or cell that is measured in a compartment in an organism.

Biomarker of susceptibility: An indicator of an inherent or acquired ability of an organism to respond to the challenge of exposure to a specific chemical substance.

Biomonitoring: Defined as one method for assessing human exposure to chemicals by measuring the chemicals or their metabolites in human specimens, such as blood or urine.

Cancer slope factor: An upper bound, approximating a 95% confidence limit, on the increased cancer risk from a lifetime exposure to an agent.

CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

CERHR: Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction.

Chemical: A chemical compound or element present in air, water, food, soil, dust, or other environmental medium (such as consumer products).

CLIA: Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act.

CLSI: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Creatinine: An end-product of protein metabolism found in the blood and urine.

DEHP: diethylhexylphthalate.

EBE: Early biological effect represents an event correlated with, and possibly predictive of, a health effect.

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency.

EPIC: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

EWG: Environmental Working Group.

Exposure assessment: An identification and evaluation of the human population exposed to a toxic agent, describing its composition and size, as well as the type, magnitude, frequency, route and duration of exposure.

External dose: Amount of chemical that is inhaled, ingested, or comes in dermal contact and is available for systemic absorption. External dose is usually expressed in units of mg of chemical per kg body weight per day (mg/kg/day).

FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

FFES: Farm Family Exposure Study.

GAO: Government Accountability Office.

GerES: German Environmental Surveys.

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