lution prevention and control, energy efficiency, emissions, air quality, and health effects (e.g., NRC 1999; Esty 2001; HEI Accountability Workgroup 2003; Hayward 2004). Table 4-1 lists possible indicators for each. Many of the indicators change or vary from one space or plant to another, and some

TABLE 4-1 Possible Indicators for Assessing Outcomes of Interest


Possible Indicators to Assess Outcome

Pollution control

  • Innovation in new technologies

  • Expenditures for research and development

  • Inventions and patents

  • Implementation of new technologies—adoption by industries

  • Improvements in use (“learning by doing”)—performance histories for selected technologies

Pollution prevention (source reduction)

  • Innovation, implementation, and improvements in industrial processes to be less polluting

  • Expenditures for research and development

  • Adoption by industries

  • Performance histories of selected technologies

  • Trends in emissions generated per unit of product produced

  • Life-cycle material-use effects, considering economywide effects through supply chain and product delivery, use, reuse, and disposal

  • Number of products introduced into commerce with reduced hazardous properties

  • Substitution of materials with less-polluting substances

Energy efficiency

  • Innovation, implementation, and improvement in use of new technologies that enable energy efficiency in electricity generation and industrial processes

  • Energy efficiency of operating units and plants

  • Industry sectorwide energy use

  • Life-cycle energy-use effects, considering economywide effects through supply chain and product delivery, use, reuse, and disposal


  • Trends in emissions for individual units, plants, industries, states, regions, and nation as a whole

  • Relationships between emissions and unit and plant operating costs and use

  • Life-cycle emission effects

Air quality

  • Ambient concentrations of relevant emitted primary pollutants and pollutants formed in atmosphere over various spatial and temporal scales

Health effects

  • Human exposure and dose

  • Mortality and disease

  • Population incidence

  • Incidence in particular subpopulations (regional and socioeconomic)

  • Risks to highly exposed people

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