FIGURE 8–2 Natural science and engineering Ph.D.s granted in the United States compared to the major European nations and to Asia. About 52 percent of U.S.-granted Ph.D.s are awarded to American-born students. Data drawn from 2006 NSF Science and Engineering Indicators. SOURCE: American Physical Society, Washington office. NOTES: *Some data were not available, so as a conservative estimate, prior-year data were used. The 2001 China data were used for the 2002 and 2003 values; 2001 Taiwan value for 2002 value; 2000 and 2002 South Korea data for 2001 and 2003, respectively; 1999 France value for 2000–2003. **U.S. institutions only. ***NS&E degrees include natural (physical, biological, Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences), agricultural, and computer sciences, mathematics, and engineering.

If the trends identified in Indicators 2004 continue undeterred, three things will happen. The number of jobs in the U.S. economy that require science and engineering training will grow; the number of U.S. citizens prepared for those jobs will, at best, be level; and the availability of people from other countries who have science and engineering training will decline, either because of limits to entry imposed by U.S. national security restrictions or because of intense global competition for people with these skills. The United States has always depended on the inventiveness of its people in order to compete in the world marketplace. Now, preparation of the S&E workforce is a vital arena for national competitiveness.



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