While some of these agencies have programs specifically in AMO science, there is a strong tendency, especially at DARPA, to multidisciplinary work that is difficult to categorize. There is also a lot of emphasis on engineering applications, often with a quick turnaround. To advance the multidisciplinary effort, DOD has created the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program, which provides a fixed $1 million per year for up to 5 years to each center. Each of the armed services agencies has a MURI component in its program; DARPA does not.
AFOSR maintains a relatively stable Atomic and Molecular Physics Program funded from the 6.1 basic research budget. Traditionally this program has not included much optical science, but this component is growing and now represents about 20 percent of the overall effort. There is also a separate Optics and Lasers Program at AFOSR, as well as programs in electro-op tics and in nanoelectronics (including work in negative index materials), which is not included in the funding data reported elsewhere in this report.
The philosophy of the AFOSR atomic and molecular physics program is to fund the best science to form a solid research foundation for areas relevant to the Air Force. Recent supported work includes novel methods for ultracooling; precision metrology, including atom interferometry; antihydrogen; optical lattices; optical frequency combs; and electromagnetic induced transparency (slow light). AFOSR supports one MURI in laser diagnostic testing of materials. About 10 percent of AFOSR funds go to theoretical work, but this would be larger with additional funding.
In rough terms, half of ARO funds for its Atomic and Molecular Physics program and its Optics, Photonics and Imaging program go to atomic and molecular physics and half goes to optical physics. The work is funded from the 6.1 basic research budget. Looking at the data another way, the funds are distributed 80 percent to quantum phenomena (atom optics, quantum optics, degenerate gases) and 20 percent to other fields. About 20 percent of the funding goes to theoretical work.
The recent trend at ARO has been to shift from attempting to cover AMO broadly to supporting more specific research themes. Present areas of interest are atomic and molecular degenerate gases; molecular cooling; optical lattices (for example, for quantum simulations of condensed matter systems); quantum imaging; negative index materials; electromagnetically induced transparency and ultra-broad-band light generation; imaging science broadly; and atom optics. In