A substantial fraction (60–70 percent) of ARO funding goes into centers whose topics of study have changed over the decade. Recently MURI centers have been studying quantum imaging (employing entanglement to perform nonclassical imaging, including subwavelength resolution, ghost imaging, quantum radar, pixel entanglement, and so on); atom optics (quantum degenerate gases such as Bose condensates, atom lasers, and the like, and guiding them in free space and on chips, performing interferometry, and so on); and quantum information and computing (exploiting quantum entanglement in ion traps, optical lattices, molecules, and so on for making qubits, teleporting information, transferring coherence between entities as in from photons to degenerate gases and back, cavity QED implementations, etc.). Quantum information and computing has seen numerous MURIs come and go. The Army also supports a small in-house optics center (not a MURI) at West Point.
DARPA is unique in DOD in that it does not maintain an infrastructure of laboratories or research facilities. This allows it to minimize institutional interests that would otherwise distract it from its search for new research areas and world-class performers. DARPA does not necessarily seek to advance progress in established disciplines, but instead will bring together teams from diverse institutions and disciplines to solve a particular problem. In the past, this was sometimes done through the establishment and funding of interdisciplinary laboratories. More recently, DARPA has been funding interdisciplinary teams of researchers from multiple research institutions without establishing a fixed infrastructure. Currently, DARPA does not operate or fund any centers in AMO science, though it funds major AMO-related collaborations.
The ONR presently supports three MURI awards at $ 1 million per year each. Two are in optical frequency standards and atomic clocks, while the third studies sub-shot-noise measurement using quantum control.
The AMO science program supports five large group efforts. Four are at DOE national laboratories and one is at Kansas State University. The levels quoted