FIGURE 4–6–1 Planned GSI facilities (shown in red). SOURCE: Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany.

given collision neither of these parameters is under the control of the experimenter. Both the timescale and the frequency spectrum of the photons depend on how close the projectile passes to the target (the impact parameter), and this cannot be dialed in experimentally. In the case of the laser, a macroscopic sample of atoms is exposed to the same pulse length and frequency spectrum, which are under the control of the experimenter. Thus the technologies are complementary, and both are likely to lead to new insights in high-intensity science.

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