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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons Controlling the Quantum World The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons Committee on AMO 2010 Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by the Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG02–04ER15610 and by the National Science Foundation under Award No. PHY-0443243. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. Cover: A purple laser beam slows erbium atoms (the purple beam traveling right to left) emerging from an oven at 1300°C, in preparation for trapping and cooling. SOURCE: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Controlling the quantum world : the science of atoms, molecules, and photons/Committee on AMO 2010, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, p.cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978–0–309–10270–4 (pbk.) 1. Quantum theory. 2. Atoms. 3. Molecules. 4. Photons. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences 2010. QC174.12.C67 2006 539—dc22 2007012182 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet <http://www.nap.edu>; and the Board on Physics and Astronomy, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; Internet <http://www.national-academies.org/bpa>. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J.Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V.Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J.Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A.Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons COMMITTEE ON AMO 2010 PHILIP H.BUCKSBAUM, University of Michigan, Co-chair ROBERT EISENSTEIN, Co-chair GORDON A.BAYM, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign C.LEWIS COCKE, Kansas State University ERIC A.CORNELL, University of Colorado/JILA E.NORVAL FORTSON, University of Washington KEITH HODGSON, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory ANTHONY M.JOHNSON, University of Maryland at Baltimore County STEVEN KAHN, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center MARK A.KASEVICH, Stanford University WOLFGANG KETTERLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology KATE KIRBY, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics PIERRE MEYSTRE, University of Arizona CHRISTOPHER MONROE, University of Michigan MARGARET M.MURNANE, University of Colorado/JILA WILLIAM D.PHILLIPS, National Institute of Standards and Technology STEPHEN T.PRATT, Argonne National Laboratory K.BIRGITTA WHALEY, University of California at Berkeley Consultants to the Committee NEIL CALDER, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center NEAL F.LANE, Rice University Staff DONALD C.SHAPERO, Director MICHAEL H.MOLONEY, Study Director BRIAN D.DEWHURST, Senior Program Associate PAMELA A.LEWIS, Program Associate PHILLIP D.LONG, Senior Program Assistant VAN AN, Financial Associate
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY ANNEILA L.SARGENT, California Institute of Technology, Chair MARC A.KASTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Vice-chair JOANNA AIZENBERG, Lucent Technologies JONATHAN A.BAGGER, Johns Hopkins University JAMES E.BRAU, University of Oregon RONALD C.DAVIDSON, Princeton University RAYMOND J.FONCK, University of Wisconsin at Madison ANDREA M.GHEZ, University of California at Los Angeles PETER F.GREEN, University of Michigan WICK C.HAXTON, University of Washington FRANCES HELLMAN, University of California at Berkeley JOSEPH HEZIR, EOP Group, Inc. ERICH P.IPPEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALLAN H.MacDONALD, University of Texas at Austin CHRISTOPHER F.McKEE, University of California at Berkeley HOMER A.NEAL, University of Michigan JOSE N.ONUCHIC, University of California at San Diego WILLIAM D.PHILLIPS, National Institute of Standards and Technology THOMAS N.THEIS, IBM T.J.Watson Research Center C.MEGAN URRY, Yale University Staff DONALD C.SHAPERO, Director TIMOTHY I.MEYER, Senior Program Officer MICHAEL H.MOLONEY, Senior Program Officer ROBERT L.RIEMER, Senior Program Officer NATALIA J.MELCER, Program Officer BRIAN D.DEWHURST, Senior Program Associate DAVID B.LANG, Research Associate CARYN J.KNUTSEN, Senior Program Assistant PAMELA A.LEWIS, Program Associate VAN AN, Financial Associate
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons Preface This report is an accounting of the AMO 2010 study undertaken by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies to assess opportunities in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) science and technology over roughly the next decade. The charge for this study was devised by a Board on Physics and Astronomy standing committee, the Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences, in consultation with the study’s sponsors, the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. The Committee on AMO 2010, which carried out the study, was asked to assess the state of the field of AMO science, emphasizing recent accomplishments and identifying new and compelling scientific questions. The report is a part of the ongoing Physics 2010 decadal survey that is being undertaken by the National Academy’s Board on Physics and Astronomy. The committee that carried out this study and wrote this report is composed of leaders from many different subfields within the AMO physics community, as well as prominent scientists from outside the field. The committee also received valuable advice from consultants Neal Lane, Rice University, and Neil Calder, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. In addition, the committee received valuable input from the following colleagues: Laura P.Bautz, Nora Berrah, Joshua Bienfang, John Bollinger, Gavin Brennen, Denise Caldwell, John Gary, Michael Casassa, Henry Chapman, Michael Chapman, Charles Clark, Paul Corkum, Philippe Crane, Roman Czujko, Joseph Dehmer, Brian DeMarco, David DeMille, Todd Ditmire, John Doyle, Henry Everitt, Aimee Gibbons, Janos Hajdu, Hashima Hassan, Robert R. Jones, Chan Joshi, William Kruer, Wim Leemans, Anthony Leggett, Steve Leone,
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons Heather Lewandowski, Jay Lowell, Lute Maleki, Anne Matsuura, Harold Metcalf, Roberta Morris, Gerard Mourou, William Ott, Peter Reynolds, Eric Rohlfing, Steve Rolston, Michael Salamon, Howard Schlossberg, Barry Schneider, David Schultz, Thomas Stoehlker, David Villeneuve, Carl Williams, and Jun Ye. Significant effort has been made to solicit community input for this study. This was done via town meetings held at the Annual Meeting of the Division of AMO Physics of the American Physical Society (APS) in Lincoln, Nebraska, in May 2005 and the International Quantum Electronics Conference (jointly sponsored by the APS Division of Laser Science, the Optical Society of America, and the Lasers and Electro-optics Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) in May 2005 in Baltimore, Maryland. The committee also solicited input from the community through a public Web site. The comments supplied by the AMO community through this site and at the town meetings were extremely valuable primary input to the committee. The federal agencies that fund AMO research in the United States were also solicited for input, through their direct testimony at open meetings and their written responses to requests for information on funding patterns and other statistical data. These data are summarized in Chapter 8 and in the appendixes to the report. Finally, the committee is grateful to the staff at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and the Office of Management and Budget, as well as staff from committees of the Congress concerned with funding legislation, who provided important background on connections between AMO science and national science policy. In November 2005, the NRC released a short interim report from the AMO 2010 Committee, which was intended as a preview of this final document. It summarized the key opportunities in forefront AMO science and in closely related critical technologies, and it discussed some of the broad-scale conclusions of the final report. It also identified how AMO science supports national R&D priorities. The present report reinforces the preliminary conclusions of the interim report and adds a wealth of detail as well as recommendations. This report reflects the committee’s enthusiasm, inspired by the tremendous excitement within the AMO science community about future R&D opportunities. It would not have been written without the extensive and unselfish work of the entire committee, its many consultants, and the NRC staff. We thank them all for their efforts. We particularly wish to thank Michael Moloney for his expertise and dedication and Don Shapero for his experience and wisdom in assisting us to produce this report. Philip Bucksbaum Robert Eisenstein Co-chair Co-chair
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Keith Burnett, University of Oxford, Alexander Dalgarno, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, David P.DeMille, Yale University, Chris H.Greene, University of Colorado, William Happer, Princeton University, Wendell T.Hill III, University of Maryland, Tin-Lun Ho, Ohio State University, Gerard J.Milburn, University of Queensland, Richart E.Slusher, Lucent Technologies, and David J.Wineland, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recom-
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons mendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Daniel Kleppner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons Contents SUMMARY 1 1 CONTROLLING THE QUANTUM WORLD: AMO SCIENCE IN THE COMING DECADE 9 What Is the Nature of Physical Law?, 10 What Happens at the Lowest Temperatures in the Universe?, 14 What Happens at the Highest Temperatures in the Universe?, 16 Can We Control the Inner Workings of a Molecule?, 18 How Will We Control and Exploit the Nanoworld?, 21 What Lies Beyond Moore’s Law?, 22 AMO Science and National Policies: Conclusions and Recommendations, 25 2 AMO SCIENCE AND THE BASIC LAWS OF NATURE 30 Spin Science, 30 Magnetometry and Medical Imaging, 33 Spin and Basic Forces, 36 Energy Levels, Time, and Atomic Clocks, 38 New Clock Technologies and GPS, 41 Are the Constants of Nature Changing?, 42 Measuring Distance and Motion Using Interferometers, 43 Optical Sensors for Navigation, 43
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons Direct Detection of Gravitational Waves, 44 Matter-Wave Interferometry (de Broglie Wave Interference), 46 Fine Structure Constant, 47 AMO Physics in the Study of the Distant Universe, 47 AMO Theory and Computation Connections to Astrophysics and Elementary Particle Physics, 52 3 TOWARD ABSOLUTE ZERO 53 The Promise of Ultracold Science, 53 Condensed Matter Physics in Dilute Atomic Systems, 56 Tuning the Interactions Between Atoms, 57 Optical Lattices, 58 Vortices, 61 Molecules and Chemistry, 61 Atom Optics, 64 Nonlinear Atom Optics, 66 Integrated Atom Optics, 68 Quantum Atom Optics, 68 Reaching Out: Plasmas, Nuclear Physics, and More, 69 Cold Plasmas, 69 The Synergy Between Experiment and Theory, 72 4 EXTREME LIGHT 73 Extreme X-Ray Laser Light, 73 Tabletop Sources of X Rays, 75 Extreme X-Ray Light Sources and the World’s First X-Ray Laser Facility, 80 AMO Contributions to Single-Molecule Imaging, 82 TESLA Test Facility Early Results, 84 Inner Shell Atomic Multiple Ionization, 84 X-Ray Nonlinear Optics, 86 Summary of Extreme X-Ray Light Sources, 87 Ultraintense Lasers: Using Extreme Light Sources to Harness Extreme States of Matter, 87 NIF and Other Large Facilities, 89 High Energy Density Science: Laboratory for Extreme Conditions in the Matter-Filled Universe, 90 Accelerating Particles with Light, 93 High Energy Density Science and XFELs, 95
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons The Fastest Pulse: Complementarity Between Extreme Light and Extreme Particle Beam Collisions, 95 5 EXPLORING AND CONTROLLING THE INNER WORKINGS OF A MOLECULE 98 Which Timescales Are Important?, 98 Molecular Movies, 100 Theoretical Computation of Ultrafast Molecular Physics, 103 Quantum Control, 103 Controlling Chemical Reactions: A Short History, 104 Quantum Interference: A Route to Quantum Control, 104 How Do We Shape an Ultrafast Laser Pulse?, 105 Aligning Molecules, 107 Looking to the Future: Can We See an Electron’s Motion?, 109 Slowing Down the Electrons: Rydberg Electrons, 109 Speeding Up the Pulse: Attosecond Science, 109 Making Attosecond Pulses, 110 Using Attosecond Pulses, 110 Hard Photons and Fast Electrons, 111 In Real Life, Timescales Overlap, 111 Controlling the Ultimate in Timescales, 114 Probing Time-Dependent Molecular Structure with Electrons, 115 An In Situ Approach to Ultrafast Electron Scattering, 117 The Future, 118 6 PHOTONICS AND THE NANOWORLD 120 Opportunities in Size-Dependent Design, 121 Visualizing the Nanoworld, 123 Reducing the Wavelength, 123 Scanning Probe Microscopes, 124 Using New Materials to Build a Better Microscope, 126 Constructing the Nanoworld, 127 From the Top Down, 127 From the Bottom Up, 130 Extending the Promise of the Nanoworld, 131 Controlling Light with Photonic Crystals, 131 Atomtronics, 133 Nanotubes in Televisions, 134 Nanotechnology in Medicine, 134 Nano-sized Sensors and Lighting, 136
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Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons 7 QUANTUM INFORMATION WITH LIGHT AND ATOMS 137 The Quantum Information Revolution, 137 What Is Information?, 139 Why Quantum Information?, 139 Quantum Information at the Frontiers of Science, 142 Quantum Information Technology, 145 Quantum Communication, 148 Quantum Cryptography: A Real-World Application, 148 Quantum Teleportation Demystified, 150 Vision for Large-Scale Quantum Hardware, 152 Trapped Atomic Ions, 153 Optical Lattices, 154 Solid-State Quantum Bits, 155 Photonic Qubits, 155 Qubit Converters Between Atoms and Photons, 157 What Would We Want to Compute with a Quantum Processor?, 161 Using a Quantum Processor to Predict the Behavior of Complex Quantum Systems, 167 Looking Forward, 169 8 REALIZING THE FUTURE 170 The Current Status of AMO Physics Program Support, 171 Maintaining U.S. Leadership in a Critical Area of Science and Technology, 175 Planning for Future U.S. Leadership in AMO Science, 179 Intellectual Outlines of Research Currently Supported, 180 Information About Funding, 182 Information About People, 184 Information About New Modalities, 185 Foreign Competition, 187 Logistical Issues in the United States, 188 Program Conclusions on Support for AMO Science, 190 APPENDIXES A AMO 2010 Queries to Federal Funding Agencies 195 B Funding 197 C Foreign Activity in AMO Science 204 D Intellectual Outlines of Current Research 209 E People 217 F New Research Modalities 222