References

Anderson, Craig A., Leonard Berkowitz, Edward Donnerstein, L.Rowell Huesmann, James D.Johnson, Daniel Linz, Neil M.Malamuth, and Ellen Wartella. (2003). The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(3), 81–110.

Calvert, S.L., L.Alvy, and B.L.Strong. (2006). Children’s websites content analysis scoring system. Children’s Digital Media Center, Georgetown University.

Christakis, Dimitri. (2006). Media as a public health issue. Editorial. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 445–446.

DeLoache, Judy S. (2005, August 7). Mindful of symbols. Scientific American, 3–77.

DeLoache, Judy S., Sophia L.Pirroutsakos, and Davis H.Uttal. (2003). The origins of pictorial competence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 4.

Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (2006). Food marketing to children and youth: Threat or opportunity? Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Kaiser Family Foundation. (2004). Parents, media, and public policy: A Kaiser survey. Available online at <http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia092304nr.cfm>.

L’Engle, Kelly Ladin, Jane D.Brown, and Kristin Kenneavy. (2006). The mass media are an important context for adolescents’ sexual behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 186–192.

National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Oakes, J. Michael. (2006). The effect of media on children: A methodological assessment from a social pathologist. Background paper prepared for Workshop on Media Research Measures and Methods. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC. Available at <http://www.bocyf.org/030206.html>.

Rosenbaum, P., and Donald B.Rubin. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70, 41–55.

Rubin, Donald B. (1997). Estimating causal effects from large data sets using propensity scores. Annals of Internal Medicine, 127(8), 757–763.

Vandewater, Elizabeth, and Sook-Jung Lee. (2006). Measuring children’s media use in the digital age: Issues and challenges. Background paper prepared for Workshop on Media Research Measures and Methods. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC. Available at <http://www.bocyf.org/030206.html>.

Zimmerman, Frederick J., and Dimitri A.Christakis. (2005). Children’s television viewing and cognitive outcomes: A longitudinal analysis of national data. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 159, 619–625.



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Studying Media Effects on Children and Youth: Improving Methods and Measures - Workshop Summary References Anderson, Craig A., Leonard Berkowitz, Edward Donnerstein, L.Rowell Huesmann, James D.Johnson, Daniel Linz, Neil M.Malamuth, and Ellen Wartella. (2003). The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(3), 81–110. Calvert, S.L., L.Alvy, and B.L.Strong. (2006). Children’s websites content analysis scoring system. Children’s Digital Media Center, Georgetown University. Christakis, Dimitri. (2006). Media as a public health issue. Editorial. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 445–446. DeLoache, Judy S. (2005, August 7). Mindful of symbols. Scientific American, 3–77. DeLoache, Judy S., Sophia L.Pirroutsakos, and Davis H.Uttal. (2003). The origins of pictorial competence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 4. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (2006). Food marketing to children and youth: Threat or opportunity? Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2004). Parents, media, and public policy: A Kaiser survey. Available online at <http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia092304nr.cfm>. L’Engle, Kelly Ladin, Jane D.Brown, and Kristin Kenneavy. (2006). The mass media are an important context for adolescents’ sexual behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 186–192. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Oakes, J. Michael. (2006). The effect of media on children: A methodological assessment from a social pathologist. Background paper prepared for Workshop on Media Research Measures and Methods. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC. Available at <http://www.bocyf.org/030206.html>. Rosenbaum, P., and Donald B.Rubin. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70, 41–55. Rubin, Donald B. (1997). Estimating causal effects from large data sets using propensity scores. Annals of Internal Medicine, 127(8), 757–763. Vandewater, Elizabeth, and Sook-Jung Lee. (2006). Measuring children’s media use in the digital age: Issues and challenges. Background paper prepared for Workshop on Media Research Measures and Methods. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC. Available at <http://www.bocyf.org/030206.html>. Zimmerman, Frederick J., and Dimitri A.Christakis. (2005). Children’s television viewing and cognitive outcomes: A longitudinal analysis of national data. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 159, 619–625.