TABLE 4-1 Hepatotoxicity of Trichloroethylene and Metabolites in Animal Stud

Species (Sex)

Doses/Concentrations

Duration of Exposure

Route/Vehicle

Swiss-Cox mice (males)

TCE, 0-3,200 mg/kg/day

6 wk

Gavage/corn oil

Sprague-Dawley rats (males)

TCE, 250, 500, 1,250, 2,500 mg/kg

Single dose

i.p./corn oil

Sprague-Dawley rats (males)

TCE, 16 and 64 mg/kg,

Single dose

i.v. or via portal vein cannula/ vegetable oil

Autoimmune prone MRL−/−mice (female)

TCE, 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5 mg/mL

4 and 32 wk

Drinking water

Autoimmune prone MRL−/−mice (female)

TCE, 0 or 2.5 mg/mL, in presence of diallyl sulfide (CYP2E1 inhibitor)

4 wk

TCE in drinking water; diallyl sulfide via osmotic pump

Autoimmune prone MRL−/−mice (female)

TCA or chloral, 0, 0.1, 0.9 mg/mL

4 wk

Drinking water

Wistar rats (male)

TCE, 376 ppm, 4 hr/day, 5 days/wk

8, 12, 24 wk

Inhalation

B6C3F1 mice (female)

chloral hydrate, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, 5 days/wk

3, 6, 12 mo, 24 mo

Gavage/in water

Swiss-Webster mice (male)

DCVC, 15, 30, 75 mg/kg

Single dose

i.p./in water

B6CF1 mice (male)

chloral hydrate, 1 g/L; DCA, 0.5 g/L

104 wk

Drinking water

B6C3F1 mice (male)

DCA, 0.5 or 5 g/L

0, 5, 15, 20, 30 days

Drinking water

B6C3F1 mice (male and female)

DCA or TCA, 1 or 2 g/L

52 wk

Drinking water

B6C3F1 mice (male and female)

DCA or TCA, 1 or 2 g/L

52 wk

Drinking water

B6C3F1 mice (male)

DCA, 0.1 to 3 g/L

1, 2 and 8 wk

Drinking water



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