Studies designed to learn more about mechanisms and modes of action in the presence of the most commonly occurring toxicants are likely to yield the most meaningful results.

  • Testing to evaluate the impact of lifestyle factors, such as alcohol consumption, smoking, chronic drug intake, and diet (e.g., nutrition, caloric restriction) should be performed.

  • Testing of mixtures to evaluate the impact of disease (e.g., diabetes) and special physiologic states (e.g., pregnancy, aging) should be performed.

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