INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

ICT FLUENCY AND HIGH SCHOOLS

A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Steven Marcus, Rapporteur

Planning Committee on ICT Fluency and High School Graduation Outcomes

Board on Science Education

Center for Education

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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ICT Fluency and High Schools: A Workshop Summary INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY ICT FLUENCY AND HIGH SCHOOLS A WORKSHOP SUMMARY Steven Marcus, Rapporteur Planning Committee on ICT Fluency and High School Graduation Outcomes Board on Science Education Center for Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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ICT Fluency and High Schools: A Workshop Summary THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. ESI-0102582 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10246-4 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 385, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2006). ICT Fluency and High Schools: A Workshop Summary. S. Marcus, Rapporteur. Planning Committee on ICT Fluency and High School Graduation Outcomes. Board on Science Education, Center for Education. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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ICT Fluency and High Schools: A Workshop Summary THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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ICT Fluency and High Schools: A Workshop Summary PLANNING COMMITTEE ON ICT FLUENCY AND HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION OUTCOMES MARGARET HONEY (Chair), Center for Children and Technology, Education Development Center, Inc., New York MICHAEL EISENBERG, Information School, University of Washington, Seattle DANIEL GOHL, Principal, McKinley Technical High School, Washington, DC MARCIA LINN, Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley JOYCE MALYN-SMITH, Education, Employment, and Community, Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA LAWRENCE SNYDER, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle PHILIP SUMIDA, Science Instructor, Maine Township High School West, Des Plaines, IL JEAN MOON, Director, HEIDI A. SCHWEINGRUBER, Senior Program Officer OLUKEMI YAI, Senior Program Assistant

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ICT Fluency and High Schools: A Workshop Summary BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION CARL E. WIEMAN (Chair), Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder ALICE M. AGOGINO, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley PHILIP BELL, Cognitive Studies in Education, University of Washington, Seattle JOHN BRANSFORD, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Washington, Seattle DAVID T. CONLEY, Department of Educational Policy and Leadership, University of Oregon, Eugene OKHEE LEE, Department of Teaching and Learning, University of Miami, Coral Gables SHARON R. LONG, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University BRETT D. MOUDLING, Utah Office of Education, Salt Lake City MARY “MARGO” MURPHY, Georges Valley High School, Thomaston, ME CARLO PARRAVANO, Merck Institute for Science Education, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ HELEN R. QUINN, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University SUSAN R. SINGER, Department of Biology, Carleton College, Northfield, MN JAMES P. SPILLANE, Department of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL WILLIAM B. WOOD, Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder JEAN MOON, Director HEIDI A. SCHWEINGRUBER, Senior Program Officer ANDREW W. SHOUSE, Program Officer OLUKEMI O. YAI, Senior Program Assistant VICTORIA N. WARD, Program Assistant

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ICT Fluency and High Schools: A Workshop Summary Acknowledgments The National Research Council (NRC), through the Center for Education and its Board on Science Education in consultation with the NRC’s Computer Science and Technology Board, was asked by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to hold a workshop to explore which components of fluency with information and communications technology can best be developed during the high school years. This report is the outgrowth of that workshop, held in Washington, DC, on October 23–24, 2005. The workshop would not have become a reality without the generous support of the NSF’s Advanced Technological Education Program and the encouragement and thoughtful guidance provided by Gerhard Salinger and Michael Haney, program directors in NSF’s Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education Division. As workshop chair, I wish to extend my thanks to my colleagues who served on the planning committee, each of whom brought deep and varied experiences to the process of planning the workshop. It was a talented and thoughtful group who gave generously of their knowledge and time. I also wish to thank Herb Lin, director of the Computer Science and Technology Board, for his ongoing consultation. I wish to thank the following individuals who presented at the workshop: Thomas N. Applegate, executive dean, Austin Community College; John Behrens, senior manager, Assessment Development and Innovation, Cisco Systems Inc.; Karen Bruett, director, Education & Community Initiatives, Dell, Inc.; Chris Dede, Timothy E. Wirth professor of learning

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ICT Fluency and High Schools: A Workshop Summary technologies, Harvard Graduate School of Education; Julia Fallon, program developer for technical education, Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, WA; Wendy Hawkins, executive director, Intel Foundation; Martin Ripley, head of e-strategy, Qualifications Curriculum Authority, U.K.; Robert Tinker, President, Concord Consortium; and Vera Michalchik, research social scientist, SRI. Special thanks go to the authors of four papers that helped hone our thinking prior and during the workshop: Philip Bell, associate professor, University of Washington, and liaison from the Board on Science Education; Paul Horwitz, senior scientist, Concord Consortium; Karen Pittman, president, Forum for Youth Investment; and Paul Resta, director, Learning Technology Center, University of Texas. I would like to thank the staff of the Board on Science Education. The intelligent oversight of director Jean Moon guided our deliberations and helped us to chart an effective course. The entire committee process was aided enormously by the skilled and highly competent work of Heidi Schweingruber, senior program officer. Kemi Yai, senior program assistant for the Board on Science Education, deserves special thanks for attending to the many and varied logistics and technologies the workshop involved. Finally, I would like to thank Steven Marcus who wrote this report and did a wonderful job capturing the many ideas—large and small—in the workshops. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s RRC. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Michael Eisenberg, Information School, University of Washington; Steve Robinson, Albert Einstein Fellow, Office of Senator Barack Obama, Washington, DC; and Nancy Butler Songer, Science Education and Learning Technologies, School of Education, University of Michigan. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. Tom Keller, Secondary Instruction, Medomak Valley High School, Waldoboro,

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ICT Fluency and High Schools: A Workshop Summary ME, oversaw the review of this report. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution. Margaret Honey, Chair Planning Committee on ICT Fluency and High School Graduation Outcomes

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ICT Fluency and High Schools: A Workshop Summary Contents 1   Background   1 2   Introduction   6 3   ICT Fluency in the 21st Century   12 4   Perspectives on High Schools   23 5   What Are High School Students Learning? Where and How Are They Learning It?   35 6   Assessments to Measure Students’ Competencies   45 7   Revisiting the Being Fluent Framework   53 8   Afterword   65     Appendixes     A   ICT Fluency: Content and Context   69 B   Achieving Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Fluency: Is Nothing New Under the Sun?   73 C   Cognitive and Social Foundations of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Fluency   77 D   Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Fluency: What Do All High School Students Need to Know?   86

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