essary can be complemented by—and perhaps only fully implemented through—intentional collaboration with community partners. The vision of community education partnerships put forth by Paul Hill and colleagues (2000) in It Takes a City helps articulate this goal, by recognizing that “the traditional boundaries between the public school system’s responsibilities and those of other community agencies are themselves a part of the educational problem.”


America’s Promise. (2005). Voices study research findings. Alexandria, VA: Author. Available: (Accessed June 2006].

Hill, P.T., Campbell, C., and Harvey, J. (2000). It takes a city: Getting serious about urban school reform. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Larson, R. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55(1), 170–183.

National Research Council. (1999). Being fluent with information technology. Committee on Information Technology Literacy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2003). Learning for the 21st century: A report and MILE guide for 21st century skills. Washington, DC: Author.

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