Integrate: The ability to interpret and represent digital information. This includes the ability to use ICT tools to synthesize, summarize, and compare information from multiple digital sources.

Evaluate: The ability to determine the degree to which digital information satisfies the needs of the task in ICT environments. This includes the ability to judge the quality, relevance, authority, point of view/bias, currency, coverage, or accuracy of digital information.

Create: The ability to generate information by adapting, applying, designing, or inventing information in ICT environments.

Communicate: The ability to communicate information properly in its context of use for ICT environments. This includes the ability to gear electronic information for a particular audience and to communicate knowledge in the appropriate venue.

I think it is important to review the 21st Century Skills and ETS ICT literacy elements to determine if new elements should be added to the fluency framework.


In addition to the assessment instrument developed by ETS, it will be important to consider the use of more authentic and performance-based measures to diagnose and assess the extent to which a student has mastered and integrated the three aspects of fluency: intellectual capabilities, concepts, and skills. Such an approach may require the use of multiple forms of evidence, including student products and performances. Such an approach should not represent an “add-on” to the present assessment process, but rather a rethinking of the assessment process to more tightly couple core content knowledge with ICT fluency.


We should also discuss perhaps the greatest challenge to achieving ICT fluency, changing pedagogical practices. Implementation Considerations, Chapter 4 in Being Fluent, advocates a project-based approach to developing FITness and recognizes that lecturing about fluency is not an optimal form of instruction. This idea needs expansion to more fully develop the

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement