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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop B Biographical Summaries of Workshop Speakers and Steering Committee Members William L. Anderson is a co-founder of Praxis101, where his consulting practice focuses on user-centered information systems architecture, participatory design, software engineering practice innovation, and organizational learning. Before founding Praxis101 he worked for Xerox Corporation in distributed system architecture, technology strategy, and advanced product development. He pioneered co-development and customer collaboration on one of the first digital libraries, a joint project between Cornell University and Xerox. He has published papers on digital library product development, participatory design of product prototypes, and software development practices and tools. Prior to Xerox, Dr. Anderson worked in the telecom, image management, and pharmaceutical industries. Dr. Anderson holds a Ph.D. in Theoretical Chemistry from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He is a member of the U.S. National Committee for the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) and co-chair of the CODATA Preservation of and Access to Scientific and Technical Data in Developing Countries. Yasuyuki Aoshima is director and representative of UNESCO Office Beijing. He has an academic background in engineering sciences with a doctorate of engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1977. From 1970 to 1975 he worked as a teaching and research assistant at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. From January 1976 to February 1982 he worked as an engineer at the Nippon Kokan (steel making,
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop ship-building, and construction company), Tokyo. He joined UNESCO in February 1982 as senior purchasing officer until 1988 when he became the chief of budgetary control and monitoring at the Section of Fellowships and Equipment Division. In 1993 he became chief of the Fellowship Section of UNESCO for a few months before being transferred to the Natural Science Sector as senior programme specialist at the Engineering and Technology Division responsible for the University-Industry-Science-Partnership programme assisting also the World Solar Programme. From October 1997 to September 2001 he worked as a senior programme specialist in the Science, Technology and Informatics division in the Jakarta field office. In September 2001 he was transferred to the Beijing Office as the director and representative of UNESCO to the People’s Republic of China, Mongolia, the Republic of Korea, Japan, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Peter Arzberger is currently Director, Life Sciences Initiatives at the University of California, San Diego, and Director of the National Biomedical Computation Resource. Dr. Arzberger received his Ph.D. in mathematics from Purdue University. In 1988 he moved to the National Science Foundation (NSF) and was Program Director for Statistics and Probability, and later the first Program Director for the Computational Biology Activities program. He also served as Deputy High Performance Computing and Communications Coordinator at NSF. In 1995 he moved to the San Diego Supercomputer Center as Executive Director, and helped lead the development of the National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure and served as its first Executive Director. His interests focus on the interface between computing, information technology, and mathematics with the broad spectrum of biomedical research and biology from the molecular through to ecological to biodiversity scales. In addition he is interested in policy issues relating to international data sharing. He is the principal investigator on the NSF award to support the Pacific Rim Application and Grid Middleware Assembly. Roberta Balstad is senior research scientist at Columbia University and director of the Center for International Earth Science Information Network. Dr. Balstad has published extensively on science policy, information technology and scientific research, remote sensing applications and policy, and the role of the social sciences in understanding global environmental change. Dr. Balstad received her Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop in 1974. She was appointed senior fellow at Oxford University in 1991-1992 and a guest scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in 1994. She was previously the director of the Division of Social and Economic Sciences at the NSF, the founder and first executive director of the Consortium of Social Science Associations, and president/CEO of CIESIN prior to its joining Columbia University. She has lectured widely, both in the United States and abroad. From 1992 to 1994, she was vice president of the International Social Science Council and has also served as chair of the NRC Steering Committee on Space Applications and Commercialization, the NATO Advisory Panel on Advanced Scientific Workshops/ Advanced Research Institutes, the AAAS Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy, and the Advisory Committee of the Luxembourg Income Study. She currently serves on the Board of Directors of the OpenGIS Consortium and the Advisory Board of the Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Studies (South Africa). Ted Bergstrom holds the Raznick Chair in Economics at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). A native of Minnesota, he has an undergraduate degree in mathematics from Carleton College, and a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University. His first employment was in the economics department at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1975 he moved to the University of Michigan, where he was a professor of economics until 1997, when he moved to UCSB. Professor Bergstrom’s interests within economics range widely over pure and applied microeconomic theory. Topics which have been central to his recent research include biology and economics, theory of public economics, and the economics of scholarly information. Dora Ann Lange Canhos is the Project Director of the Centro de Referencia em Informacio Ambiental (CRIA; Reference Center on Environmental Information, www.cria.org.br). She has been working with databases and online information systems since 1985. She has been involved with biodiversity information networks since 1992, as a member of BIN21 (Biodiversity Information Network—Agenda 21) and responsible for its Web site, and serving as technical coordinator of the project BINbr (Biodiversity Information Network—Brazil) for the Ministry of the Environment from May 1997 to April 2001. She is also member of the Clearing-House Mechanism Informal Advisory Committee (http://www.biodiv.org/) and of the Liaison Working Group of the Biosafety Clearing-
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop House (http://bch.biodiv.org/), both of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Currently at CRIA, Dr. Canhos is a member of the developing team of the speciesLink network (http://splink.cria.org.br/). Vishwas Chavan works at the National Chemical Laboratory (NCL), Pune, India, in the field of Biodiversity Informatics developing tools and standards to improve infrastructure and capacity building in collection, collation, analysis, prediction, and dissemination of knowledge. Mr. Chavan has been using information and communication technologies to create collaboratory environment, for biologists and ecologists ensuring that rate of exchange and sharing of information on biotic resources improves. One significant and impact-making activity that Vishwas is leading is development of the Electronic Catalogue of Known Indian Fauna (IndFauna), which aims to collates baseline information about 90,000 known faunal species in India. Prior to joining NCL, Vishwas was employed at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology Hyderabad facilitating the activities of the Bioinformatics Centre and preparing a master plan for bioinformatics activities. He has published more than 60 research and review papers, and developed a dozen databases and program packages that have been employed in the service of the scientific community. Vishwas received a Fulbright Professional Fellowship in Information Sciences & Technology (2000-2001), during which he was closely associated with the U.S. National Biological Information Infrastructure. He is also a member of the CODATA Preservation of and Access to Scientific and Technical Data in Developing Countries, and co-chair of the Information Management Committee of Global Invasive Species Program. Vishwas received a B.S. in zoology from N. Wadia College, after which he joined the School of Environmental Sciences, University of Pune, and received an M.S. degree in environmental sciences in June 1990. Jun Chen is President of the National Geomatics Center of China (NGCC). After obtaining his M.Sc. at Wuhan Technical University of Surveying and Mapping (WTUSM) in 1983, he worked as a lecturer, associate professor, and professor at WTUSM from 1983-1995. He was the executive director of the National Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying and Mapping from 1990-1995. He joined NGCC in the end of 1995. From 1999 to 2003, he was President of the Chinese Association for Geographical Information Systems, the corresponding member of the International Eurasian Academy of Sciences.
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop Panqin Chen is Deputy Director of the Bureau of Resources and Environmental Sciences and Technology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is vice-chair of the Science Committee of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network. Robert Chen is CIESIN’s Deputy Director and a Senior Research Scientist. He manages the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center, a data center in NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System. He is currently Secretary-General of CODATA of the International Council for Science (ICSU). He is an ex officio member on both the U.S. National Committee for CODATA of the U.S. National Research Council and the Task Group on Data and Scenario Support for Impacts and Climate Analysis of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Dr. Chen serves as CIESIN’s Technical Representative to the Open Geospatial Consortium and participates in the U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee Historical Data Committee. He is also a member of the Scientific Advisory Council of the Meadowlands Environmental Research Institute of the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission. Dr. Chen has also coordinated CIESIN’s spatial analysis and mapping support to the Millennium Development Project led by EI Director Jeffrey Sachs and oversees other projects on poverty mapping, sustainability indicators, and public health applications of Earth science data. He received his Ph.D. in geography from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and holds Masters and Bachelors degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Jinpei Cheng is Vice Minister of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and vice-chairman of the Central Committee of the China Zhi Gong Party. He attended Nankai University and Northwestern University in the United States, where he obtained a doctorate. Cheng previously served as an academician at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Third World Academy of Science. He serves as vice-minister of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Michael T. Clegg received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in agricultural genetics and genetics, respectively, at the University of California, Davis. In 1972 he joined the faculty of Brown University, moving from there to the University of Georgia in 1976. In 1984, he assumed his present position as Professor of Genetics at the University of California, Riverside. He also served as Dean of the College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences from 1994 to
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop 2000 and he is founding Director of the Genomics Institute and at the University of California, Riverside. Professor Clegg’s research specialty is population genetics and molecular evolution. His early work in population genetics focused on the dynamical behavior of linked systems of genes in plant and Drosophila populations. During this period, he also contributed to the theoretical study of multilocus systems employing computer simulations together with the analysis of mathematical models. Later he helped pioneer the comparative analysis of cholorplast DNA variation as a tool for the reconstruction of plant phylogenies. His current work is concerned with the comparative genomics of plant gene families, the molecular evolution of genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, the use of coalescent models to study crop plant domestication, and the application of molecular markers to avocado improvement. Professor Clegg was elected to membership in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 1990 and he was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1992. He was elected foreign secretary of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 2002. He has also served as president of the American Genetic Association (1987) and the International Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution (2002), and chair of the Section on Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2003). Helen J. Doyle is the director of Development and Strategic Alliances for the Public Library of Science. As former director of the Science Program at the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Helen J. Doyle developed and managed grant-making programs in basic and interdisciplinary academic research, higher education and diversity, science and technology for international development, and science education. Helen spent nearly ten years in New York City, where she majored in biochemistry at Barnard College and received her Ph.D. in biological sciences from Columbia University for her work on Drosophila developmental genetics. She then spent two years as a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in Tubingen, Germany. Returning to her native California, Helen continued her research on early development and cell communication with J. Michael Bishop at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). While a postdoc at UCSF, Helen developed a strong interest in public understanding of science and science education reform issues. She joined UCSF’s Science & Health Education Partnership as an academic coordinator, working with San Francisco public schools and the university to improve science, math, and health education. She has also taught at various
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop institutions, including UC Berkeley, Mills College, and the California Academy of Sciences. James Edwards is the executive secretary of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an intergovernmental organization devoted to making biodiversity data freely and openly available via the Internet. He is also the director of the GBIF Secretariat in Copenhagen, Denmark. He received his B.S. (1967) and Ph.D. (1976) degrees from the University of California at Berkeley. His research interests are the systematics and functional morphology of amphibians and fishes, and biodiversity informatics. From 1974-1976, Dr. Edwards was an instructor in the Biology Department at Queens College of the City University of New York, and from 1976-1982 he was an assistant and associate professor in the Zoology Department at Michigan State University. In 1982, he took a position in the Directorate for Biological Sciences at the NSF, which funds the vast majority of non-medical biological research at U.S. colleges and universities. While at the NSF, he served successively as program director for several programs (Systematic Biology, Biological Research Resources, Field Stations and Marine Laboratories, and Biotic Surveys and Inventories), as deputy division director for Biotic Systems and Resources, and as deputy assistant director for Biological Sciences. In the latter capacity, he was the second-in-command of a yearly budget of approximately $500 million. Dr. Edwards served on several federal task forces, and was the chair of an interagency steering committee on biological and ecological informatics. He also chaired a working group on Biological Informatics of the Megascience Forum of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, which in 1999 recommended the formation of the GBIF. Dr. Edwards then chaired the Interim Steering Committee that developed the Memorandum of Understanding for the organization and recruited the requisite number of governmental members and funding to allow it to come into existence in March 2001. Currently, he is on a five-year leave of absence from NSF in order to serve as the executive secretary of GBIF. Julie M. Esanu is a program officer for the Office of International Scientific and Technical Information Programs (ISTIP) at the U.S. National Academies. Her emphasis is policy and management issues related to digital scientific and technical data and information, primarily through the support of the U.S. National Committee for CODATA. Julie is the coeditor of two recent and related National Academies reports, including
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop Open Access and the Public Domain in Digital Data for Science: Proceedings of a Symposium (National Academies Press [NAP], forthcoming) and The Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain: Proceedings of a Symposium (NAP, 2003). She has provided program and research support to other National Academies’ projects examining the role of remote-sensing research and applications; reviewing C4I planning for the Department of Defense; assessing the research programs at the Army Research Laboratory; and examining the allocation of federal research and development funds. Julie received her B.A. in political science and international affairs from George Washington University. Zukang Feng received a Ph.D. in biophysics at Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry, Academia Sinica, China, in 1991. In 1994, he was awarded the Lise Meitner Postdoctoral Research Fellowship from the Austrian Science Foundation and completed postdoctoral research at the University of Salzburg, Austria. In 1996, Dr. Feng joined the Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) project at the laboratory of Professor Helen Berman of Rutgers University. In this position he developed the first package of programs that validate nucleic acid structural data and automate data processing systems. In 1998 he joined the Protein Data Bank (PDB) project. Dr. Feng is presently the leader of software development for both PDB and NDB projects and is responsible for the curation and annotation of the data that are received and distributed worldwide. Xiaofeng Fu is Professor and Director of the Information Division of the Administrative Center for China’s Agenda 21, which is a part of the Ministry of Science and Technology. He also serves as Deputy Team Leader of the National Science Data Sharing Project Workshop, Deputy Director of the Science Data Sharing Project Office, and Member of the CODATA Preservation of and Access to Scientific and Technical Data in Developing Countries. Dr. Fu is also in charge of the construction and administration of the China Sustainable Development Information Network. Previously, Dr. Fu worked as Assistant Research Fellow for the Institute of Geographic Sciences & Natural Resources Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He received a Doctor of Science from Nanjing University in 1997 and also holds a postdoctorate degree. Huadong Guo is Deputy Secretary-General of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He graduated from Nanjing University in 1977, received a
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop master’s degree from the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1981, and studied at Oregon State University from 1984 to 1985. Guo spent his formative research years with the Institute of Remote Sensing Application at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He served as a research fellow at the institute as well as an executive deputy director. In 1988, he ascended to the institute’s directorship. Guo later became director of the key lab of remote-sensing information science at the academy. A member of the National 863 Program Information Acquisition and Process Technology Theme Expert Team, Guo has served as executive deputy editor-in-chief of the Remote Sensing Journal and is a member of the editorial board of six Chinese and foreign magazines. He is the director-general of the environment remote-sensing division of the China Geography Society. Beginning in the late 1970s, Guo has studied remote-sensing information science, notably radar-to-ground observations. He has supervised more than 20 domestic and international research projects and published more than 140 theses. Guo is the winner of numerous first, second, and third prizes of scientific and technological progress from the academy as well as a prominent contribution prize about the National 863 Program. Jianguo Han is Director of the International Cooperation Bureau of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Qiheng Hu graduated from the Moscow Institute for Chemistry Mechanics with a specialization in Industrial Automation in 1959 and obtained a Ph.D. in 1963. From 1980 to 1982, she visited Case Western Reserve University of the United States as a research professor. From 1983 to 1989 she was Director of the Institute of Automation in the Chinese Academy of Sciences; in 1986 she led the construction of the 1st National Laboratory on Pattern Recognition in China. From 1988 to 1996 she served as VicePresident of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. She is a past president of the China Computer Federation and the China Association for Automation. She was elected Member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering in 1994. She currently serves as Vice-President of the China Association for Science and Technology, President of the Internet Society of China, and a member of the Working Group for Ethics in Research Training of UNESCO. She is enthusiastic in promoting international exchanges and collaborations for the Chinese scientific community. Since 1994 she has devoted great efforts for the introduction and development of the Internet into China. She is a
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop member of the State Advisory Committee on Information, and has been active in ICSU activities on the Ethics for Science from 1996 to 2002. Dingcheng Huang is a Professor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, President of the China Engineering Geology Commission, and Director of the Expert Committee of the China Scientific Data Sharing Program. Funan Huang graduated from The First Military Medical University in 1990 with a major in medicine, and obtained his Doctor’s Degree from Chinese PLA General Hospital and Graduate Medical School in 1998 with a specialization in geriatric neurology and neurobiology. From 2000 to 2003, he worked at the Parkinson Research Unit in Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia. Dr. Huang’s main clinic and research work was in the fields of clinic neurodiagnostics and neurodegenerative diseases and cerebral vascular diseases. Dr. Huang has published 20 papers in nationwide and international academic journals. Tieqing Huang works in the Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Shuichi Iwata is professor of data science and environmental engineering at the University of Tokyo and president of CODATA, a term he holds until 2006. Dr. Iwata received his doctorate in nuclear engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1975. He has served in various capacities at the University of Tokyo, including lecturer, associate professor, and head of the Metallurgical Division (1978-1981) of the Engineering Research Institute; associate professor of nuclear fuels and materials (1981-1991); professor of materials design (1991-1992), Department of Nuclear Engineering; professor of design science (1992-2002), director (1997-2000), and professor of life cycle engineering (2002-2003) at the RACE (Research into Artifacts, Center for Engineering) Center; and professor of Design Science of Materials (2003-2004), Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, School of Engineering. He served as a guest researcher in FIZ-Karlsruhe, Germany, from October 1985 to October 1986. His work includes researches on design science of materials and engineering products, nuclear fuels and materials and materials databases. He has also served as project leader and coordinator in the fields of materials databases and materials design. Dr. Iwata serves as chairman of JSPS 122 Committee and member of SCJ Liaison Committee. He is a member of the Academic Societies for the Japan
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop Institute of Metals, the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Japan Society of Energy and Resources, the Physical Society of Japan, Information Processing Society of Japan, and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. He received the Promotion of Science and Technology Information Award from JST in 1998, a Paper Award from the Japan Institute of Metals in 1999, and the GIW Best Paper Award in 2003. Heather Joseph is President and Chief Operating Officer of BioOne, a Web-based aggregation of research in the biological, ecological, and environmental sciences. In this position, Ms. Joseph leads the nonprofit startup enterprise’s business, operational, administrative, and strategic development. Ms. Joseph has worked on a variety of innovative electronic publishing projects during the past decade. As Director of Publishing for the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB), she managed the growth of Molecular Biology of the Cell, the first journal to partner with the National Institutes of Health’s PubMed Central initiative. She also created a system to peer review and publish multimedia content in the journal. Before ASCB, Joseph held publishing positions with the Society for Neuroscience, where she managed the transition of The Journal of Neuroscience from print to Web publication, and at Elsevier Science. She began her work in scientific publishing at the American Astronomical Society, where she collaborated in the creation of one of the first fully electronic journals, The Electronic Astrophysical Journal Letters, with funding from the NSF. Ms. Joseph also participates in several professional societies, currently serving as a member of the Board of Directors for the Society for Scholarly Publishing, and as a member of the Program Committee for the upcoming meeting of the Council of Science Editors. Menas Kafatos is dean of the School of Computational Sciences at George Mason University. The School is an interdisciplinary academic unit that provides graduate, state-of-the-art education and training in the biological and physical sciences, with an emphasis on the computational and data analysis techniques and methodologies. He also directs the Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, a center that focuses on both Earth and space sciences research and applications. Kafatos has broad interests in astrophysics, cosmology, Earth systems science, data systems, foundations of quantum theory, and neuroscience. Author or editor of 12 books, and more than 180 articles, he is the recipient of sizable grants in a variety of areas. He is the principal investigator of the VAccess/Mid-Atlantic Geospatial In-
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop formation Consortium funded by NASA, which provides access to remote-sensing and other data and information products to a variety of state and local agencies. Jun Li works for the Academy of Macroeconomic Research of the Chinese National Development and Reform Commission, spending most of his time working for the office for National Geospatial Information Coordination Committee, which focuses on an e-government basin database for natural resources and geospatial basic information database. Li previously worked for the resources and environment data center that is housed in the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. From 1998 to 2000, he designed and built the Geographical Information System for Landslide Research for landslide risk assessment and landslide information exchange. He received his Ph.D. in cartography and geographical information sciences from the Institute of Geography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Shunbao Liao is an Associate Professor in the Global Change Information and Research Center of the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Liao has a Ph.D. in the application of remote sensing and GIS. Dr. Liao’s interests include the analysis and design of information systems and the development and sharing of geoscientific data. Anne M. Linn is a senior program officer with the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources of the National Academies. She has been with the board since 1993, directing the USA World Data Center Coordination Office and staffing a wide variety of geophysical and data policy studies. In addition, she is the secretary of ICSU’s Panel on World Data Centers, and a member of the ICSU Ad Hoc Committee on Data. Prior to joining the staff of the National Academies, Dr. Linn was a visiting scientist at the Carnegie Institution of Washington and a postdoctoral geochemist at the University of California, Berkeley. She received a Ph.D. in geology from the University of California, Los Angeles. Chuang Liu is Professor and Director of the Global Change Information and Research Center in the Institute of Geography and Natural Resources at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. She currently serves on the Chinese CODATA as Co-Chair of the Task Group on Preservation of and Access to
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop Scientific and Technical Data in Developing Countries and Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) as the User Co-Chair of the Working Group of Information Systems and Services. She is Chair of the Spatial Data Committee of Chinese Associate of Geographical Information Systems and Secretariat General of the Working Group of Remote Sensing and Data Information Systems, China National Committee for IGBP. Dr. Liu is active in research on the broad issues regarding strategy, technology, and capacity building of open access to environmental data. She is Chair of the Expert Group on International Cooperation for the National Facilities and Information Infrastructure for Science and Technology Program, Member of the Working Group of China Scientific Data Sharing Program, and ICSU Priority Area Assessment Panel on Scientific Data and Information. Dr. Liu received her Ph.D. in geography from Peking University in 1989. She was Visiting Professor at the University of British Columbia, Canada, from 1992-1993, Post-Doctor Fellow and then Information Scientist, as well as the China Project Leader in CIESIN, USA from 1994-1998. She also served UNDP/FAO and Asia Development Bank as the GIS Consultant and Technical Assistant. Depei Liu is Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, President of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and President of the Peking Union Medical College. Dr. Liu holds a Ph.D. in molecular biology and has studied at the Institute of Basic Medical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, the Peking Union Medical College, and the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Liu’s research interests include medical molecular biology; gene regulation of expression, gene transfer, and gene therapy; and transgenic animals and disease models. Dr. Liu has published more than 100 academic papers. Dr. Liu is a member of the Chinese Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the American Society of Hematology, the Society of Chinese Bio-scientists in America, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the Chinese Medical Association. Lulama Makhubela has more than 20 years of professional activism as ex-professor in Information Science in various universities, including the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. She has consulted in library and information services with a specific focus on collection development policies, information literacy and ICTs in teaching. She served as a board member in several national bodies and is currently a member of national committees in research and development, information, and data-related matters.
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop Dr. Makhubela is currently head of the Research and Development Directorate at the National Development Agency (NDA) a position that she took in October 2003. NDA is an agency of the South African Government tasked with eradicating poverty in poor communities. She is tasked with a challenge of developing the South African Poverty Data Center. Dr. Makhubela is a member of the CODATA Preservation of and Access to Scientific and Technical Data in Developing Countries. Raymond A. McCord is an environmental information manager in the Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Dr. McCord has been a staff member at ORNL for 18 years. During this time, he managed the development and operation of three major environmental information systems supporting environmental research, restoration, compliance, and assessment. Dr. McCord was also responsible for establishing a geographic information system (GIS) center within the Division. Currently, Dr. McCord is manager of the data archive for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program. This archive contains more than 6,000,000 data files (~30 TB of storage) of information about meteorology, atmospheric physics, and cloud formation. The ARM Program is a major component of the Department of Energy’s global climate change research program. Prior to working at ORNL, Dr. McCord was employed as an information analyst at Scinece Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in Oak Ridge. Dr. McCord received his Ph.D. in ecology from the University of Tennessee in 1980. Dahe Qin is an internationally recognized scientist in Glacier (including Antarctic ice sheet) and ice core studies relating to paleoclimate and paleoenvironment. He has committed himself to cryosphere and climate change research since 1970 and has done field work in Antarctica and Tibet. He presently focuses on environmental and climatic variation; climatic and environmental evaluation; and glacier change relating to global change. Previously, he served as chief scientist of the projects supported by the Chinese National Natural Sciences Foundation, the Basic Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Key Innovation Projects of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, as well as of related bilateral cooperation programs between China and the United States, Australia, and France. He also oversees the scientific Assessment on Climate, Ecology and Environment of Western China. He was voted Academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2003 for his research on the cryosphere. Dr. Qin is
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop currently the administrator of the China Meteorological Administration as well as Director of the China National Climate Committee, Permanent Representative of China with WMO, Co-chair of the Working Group I of IPCC, and Vice-Chair of the China National Committee of IGBP and International Commission of Science and Snow and Ice. Jerome Reichman is Bunyan S. Womble Professor of Law at Duke Law School. He has written and lectured widely on diverse aspects of intellectual property law, including comparative and international intellectual property law and the connections between intellectual property and international trade law. His articles in this area have particularly addressed the problems that developing countries face in implementing the World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement). Other recent writings have focused on intellectual property rights in data; the appropriate contractual regime for online delivery of computer programs and other information goods; and on the use of liability rules to stimulate investment in innovation without impoverishing the public domain. His most recent articles are “The Globalization of Private Knowledge Goods and the Privatization of Global Public Goods” (co-authored with Keith Maskus), 7 Journal of International Economic Law No. 2 (forthcoming, 2004), and “A Contractually Reconstructed Research Commons for Scientific Data in a Highly Protectionist Intellectual Property Environment” (co-authored with Paul Uhlir), 66 Law and Contemporary Problems 315-462 (2003). Professor Reichman serves as special advisor to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and ICSU on the subject of legal protection for databases. He is an academic advisor to the American Committee for Interoperable Systems (ACIS); a consultant to the Technology Program of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); and a member of the Board of Editors, Journal of International Economic Law. Paul G. Richards was born in the United Kingdom and obtained a Bachelor’s degree in mathematics at the University of Cambridge before coming to the United States in 1965, where he obtained his Ph.D. in seismology at the California Institute of Technology. Richards has been a professor at Columbia University since 1971, teaching and doing research in all aspects of seismology. He has co-authored a major seismology textbook (translated into Chinese), and for the last five years has specialized in prac-
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop tical methods to obtain accurate locations for the thousands of earthquakes that occur each year in East Asia. He has received fellowships from the Sloan, Guggenheim, and MacArthur Foundations, and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Steve Rossouw graduated from the Universities of Pretoria, Cape Town, and Stellenbosch with a DPhil in Information Science. Professor Rossouw was the executive director of the Information Center, Medical Research Council from 1975-1992. He is presently a professor of Information Studies at Cape Technikon, a position he has held since 1992. Peter Schröder studied sociology (mental health and epidemiology as minors) at the University of Amsterdam. He worked as a journalist and rock critic before joining the Ministry of Education and Science as policy advisor for educational support systems. After a stay at Utrecht University managing the multidisciplinary Urban Networks research program, he rejoined the Ministry’s Directorate of Research and Science Policy as policy advisor on social sciences and information policies. Focusing on issues of access to data and information for research he acted as secretary of the Auditor General’s committee advising on privacy protection in scientific research that led to the establishment of the Scientific Statistical Agency in The Netherlands. As coordinator for information policy he is involved in e-science programs for cultural heritage and humanities. Peter Schröder was co-chair of the CSTP/OECD group that published the report Promoting Access to Public Research Data for Scientific, Economic and Social Development (March 2003, see http://dataaccess.ucsd.edu and see also Science, Vol. 303, 1777-1778, 19 March 2004) and secretary to the OECD group that framed the draft Guidelines on Access to Research Data from Public Funding in the Declaration endorsed by OECD science ministers at their meeting on 30 January 2004 in Paris (see http://www.oecd.org/document/15/0,2340,en_2649_34487_25998799_1_1_1_1,00.html ). Belinda Seto joined the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) as its deputy director in December 2003. The NIBIB, a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), improves human health by leading the development and accelerating the application of biomedical technologies. The Institute is committed to integrating the physical and engineering sciences with the life sciences to advance basic research and medical care. In her position, Dr. Seto oversees NIBIB’s pro-
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop grams, priorities, resources, policies, and research dissemination efforts. Prior to joining the NIBIB, Dr. Seto served as the acting deputy director for Extramural Research, NIH, as well as the director of the Office of Extramural Research (OER). OER serves as the focal point for policies and guidelines for extramural research grants administration. Prior to joining OER, Dr. Seto held positions in other components of the NIH, as well as in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). She earned her Ph.D. in biochemistry at Purdue University in 1974. Following postdoctoral training in the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Dr. Seto joined the Food and Drug Administration where she conducted research in virology for nearly 10 years. She is the recipient of numerous awards for her research, including the DHHS Secretary’s Award for Exceptional Achievement, Inventor’s Awards, NIH Director’s awards, and she is listed in the American Men and Women of Science. Dr. Seto has served on numerous NIH and interagency committees, and is a member of several professional societies including the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Pippa Smart has worked in academic publishing for over 17 years in both the commercial and noncommercial sectors. She has experience in print and electronic production, business and publishing development, and, in her current role for INASP, works in an advisory role with publishers in less developed countries. She is also the chair of the Professional Development Committee of the Association of Learned, Professional and Society Publishers, and sits on its Council. Carthage Smith is deputy executive director of ICSU, which is an international non-governmental organization, whose membership includes national science bodies and international scientific unions. ICSU’s mission is to strengthen international science for the benefit of society. It achieves this by: (1) planning and coordinating international science programs and (2) representing the science community in international policy fora. Carthage has been at ICSU since 2001 and his activities have included leading ICSU’s representation at the World Summit on the Information Society (Geneva, December 2003). Prior to joining ICSU, he was head of the International Section at the Medical Research Council in the United Kingdom. Originally trained as a biochemist, his Ph.D. and research background are in neuroscience.
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop Khudulmur Sodov is the Director of the Information and Computer Center and Director of the National Remote Sensing Center of the Ministry of Nature and Environment in Mongolia. Khudulmur’s educational background is mathematics and computer science. He has participated in a variety of projects on such topics as Mongolian biodiversity, natural resource management using GIS, land-cover mapping, grasslands, and GIS in cadastral mapping. Chengquan Sun is director of the Scientific Information Center for Resources and the Environment of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is also a professor in the Department of Geography at Uni-Bonn as well as a professor at Lanzhou University. Dr. Sun is engaged in the analysis and management of information. Xiaowei Tang is a professor at Zhejiang University. His research interests include nuclear and high-energy experiments, the application of nucleus technology, and neuroinformatics. Tang is a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Yiyuan Tang is a professor and director of the Institute of Neuroinformatics and Director of the Laboratory for Brain and Mind at the Dalian University of Technology. Tang also serves as the government representative of the OECD-GSF-NI Working Group, associate director of the National Communication Group of Neuroinformatics, guest professor in the Laboratory for Mental Health of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and senior visiting professor at the Institute of Psychology & Institute of Biophysics. His research interests include neuroimaging, Chinese cognition, psychosomatic medicine, and body-mind interaction. He has published in the Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, Neuroinformatics, NeuroImage, Neurocomputing, Human Brain Mapping, the Chinese Science Bulletin, and the Chinese Medical Journal. Paul F. Uhlir, J.D., is director of the ISTIP Office at the U.S. National Academies in Washington, D.C., where he has worked in various senior professional capacities since 1984. Paul’s area of emphasis is on issues at the interface of science, technology, and law, with primary focus on digital information policy and management. He is currently organizing a series of projects on policy issues concerning open access to public scientific information at both the national and international levels, as well as a series of
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop workshops on data management and policy issues in developing countries. He also has been the National Academies’ coordinator on intellectual property-related activities. Paul has published 23 reports through the National Academies, and over 50 articles. Prior to joining the National Academies, he worked as a foreign affairs officer at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on international remote-sensing law and policy issues. Additional information about Paul’s activities may be found at: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/biso/ISTIP.html. Henda van der Berg is with the National Research Foundation in South Africa where she is responsible for the Content Resources Function (Information and Data) within the Information Strategy and Advice Unit. She qualified with honours in library and information science in 1976 from the University of South Africa. She has extensive experience in metadata descriptions and international standards from 1971 until 1991. From 1993, Ms. van der Berg worked in the field of database management and database development. She is a developer of the Nexus Database System Portal and databases. She is a member of the Steering Committee for the South African Data Centre for Oceanography and of an expert advisory group that served as a Reference Group for the Institutional Research Information System tasked with the Data Specification Project of the Southern African Research & Innovation Management Association. Her professional memberships include the Library and Information Association for South Africa and SA Online User Group. Ms. van der Berg has published a number of publications in the field of current research information systems, especially the analysis of data for the evaluation of user interfaces. Peter N. Weiss began work with the Strategic Planning and Policy Office of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, in March 2000. His responsibilities include domestic and international data policy issues, with a view towards fostering a healthy public/private partnership. Mr. Weiss was a senior policy analyst/attorney in the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget (OMB), since 1991. Mr. Weiss analyzed policy and legal issues involving information resources and information technology management, with particular emphasis on Electronic Data Interchange and electronic commerce. He is primary author of the information policy sections of OMB Circular No. A-130, “Management of Federal Information Resources,” and was a member of the Administration’s Electronic Commerce
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop Working Group. (See “A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce.”) From 1990-1991, Mr. Weiss was deputy associate administrator for Procurement Law, Office Federal Procurement Policy. In this position, he analyzed legal and policy issues affecting the procurement process. Major projects included examination of legal and regulatory issues involving procurement automation, policies and FAR revisions to facilitate EDI, as well as ADP procurement legal and policy issues. From 1985 to 1990, Mr. Weiss was the assistant chief counsel for Procurement and Regulatory Policy, Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration. From 1981 to 1985, Mr. Weiss was in private practice in Washington, D.C. Mr. Weiss holds a B.A. from Columbia University and a J.D. from the Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law. Recent publications include “International Information Policy in Conflict: Open and Unrestricted Access versus Government Commercialization,” in Borders in Cyberspace, Kahin and Nesson, eds., MIT Press 1997; “Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts,” in Georg Aichholzer/Herbert Burkert (eds.); and “Public Sector Information in the Digital Age: Between Markets, Public Management and Citizens’ Rights,” Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing (2004). Raymond J. Willemann is a senior technical advisor for GEM Technology in Washington, D.C. From 1998 to 2003, Dr. Willemann was director of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), a nongovernmental organization that collects, reanalyzes, and redistributes parametric information on earthquakes from more than 100 seismic networks around the world. At the ISC, Dr. Willemann led a modernization effort that greatly increased the volume of data collected, improved the timeliness of data distribution, and offered new avenues for accessing data. Before joining the ISC, he was a senior scientist with SAIC, where he played a key role at the International Data Center for GSETT-3, an experiment in near-real-time international exchange of seismic data. Dr. Willemann is a member of the International Association for Seismoloyg and the Physics of the Earth’s Interior (IASPEI) Commission on Seismic Observation and Interpretation and the IASPEI Resolutions Committee, which formulated a resolution on sharing information on seismic station locations in 2003. He earned his Ph.D. in geophysics from Cornell University in 1986. He is a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society and a member of the American Geophysical Union and the Seismological Society of America.
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Strategies for Preservation of and Open Access to Scientific Data in China: Summary of a Workshop John Willinsky is currently the Pacific Press Professor of Literacy and Technology and Distinguished University Scholar in the Department of Language and Literacy Education at the University of British Columbia (UBC). He is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and a member of the U.S. National Academy of Education, as well as author of a number of books, including Technologies of Knowing and If Only We Knew: Increasing the Public Value of Social Science Research. Examples of his recent work, including open-source software developed to improve the access and quality of research, are available at the Public Knowledge Project (http://pkp.ubc.ca), which he directs at UBC.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: