RENEWING U.S. TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH

Robert W. Lucky and Jon Eisenberg, Editors

Committee on Telecommunications Research and Development

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Renewing U.S. Telecommunications Research RENEWING U.S. TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH Robert W. Lucky and Jon Eisenberg, Editors Committee on Telecommunications Research and Development Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Renewing U.S. Telecommunications Research THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Science Foundation under award number CNS 0238609. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10265-0 This report is available in PDF format from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Renewing U.S. Telecommunications Research THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Renewing U.S. Telecommunications Research COMMITTEE ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ROBERT W. LUCKY, Telcordia Technologies (retired), Chair JAMES D. ADAMS, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute FREDERICK R. CHANG,1 University of Texas, Austin JOHN M. CIOFFI, Stanford University RICHARD A. DeMILLO, Georgia Institute of Technology REED HUNDT, McKinsey & Company JEFFREY M. JAFFE, Novell EDWARD KOZEL, Open Range Ventures RAJIV LAROIA, Flarion Technologies DAVID MESSERSCHMITT, University of California, Berkeley ELI M. NOAM, Columbia University DANIEL PIKE, GCI Cable and Entertainment LAWRENCE RABINER, Rutgers University THEODORE S. RAPPAPORT, University of Texas, Austin WILLIAM J. SPENCER, SEMATECH (Emeritus) DAVID TEECE, University of California, Berkeley HEMANT THAPAR, Link-A-Media Devices JACK K. WOLF, University of California, San Diego Staff JON EISENBERG, Director and Study Director DAVID PADGHAM, Associate Program Officer CYNTHIA A. PATTERSON, Program Officer (through October 2004) PHIL HILLIARD, Research Associate (through June 2004) JENNIFER BISHOP, Senior Project Assistant 1 Fred Chang resigned from the committee in October 2005 when he became director of research at the National Security Agency.

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Renewing U.S. Telecommunications Research COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD JOSEPH F. TRAUB, Columbia University, Chair ERIC BENHAMOU, Benhamou Global Ventures, LLC WILLIAM DALLY, Stanford University MARK E. DEAN, IBM Almaden Research Center DAVID J. DeWITT, University of Wisconsin, Madison DEBORAH ESTRIN, University of California, Los Angeles JOAN FEIGENBAUM, Yale University KEVIN KAHN, Intel Corporation JAMES KAJIYA, Microsoft Corporation MICHAEL KATZ, University of California, Berkeley RANDY H. KATZ, University of California, Berkeley SARA KIESLER, Carnegie Mellon University TERESA H. MENG, Stanford University PRABHAKAR RAGHAVAN, Yahoo! Research FRED B. SCHNEIDER, Cornell University ALFRED Z. SPECTOR, Independent Consultant, Pelham, New York WILLIAM STEAD, Vanderbilt University ANDREW J. VITERBI, Viterbi Group, LLC PETER WEINBERGER, Google, Inc. JEANNETTE M. WING, Carnegie Mellon University JON EISENBERG, Director KRISTEN BATCH, Associate Program Officer JENNIFER M. BISHOP, Program Associate RADHIKA CHARI, Administrative Coordinator RENEE HAWKINS, Financial Associate MARGARET MARSH HUYNH, Senior Program Assistant HERBERT S. LIN, Senior Scientist LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Senior Program Officer DAVID PADGHAM, Associate Program Officer JANICE SABUDA, Senior Program Assistant TED SCHMITT, Program Officer GLORIA WESTBROOK, Senior Program Assistant BRANDYE WILLIAMS, Staff Assistant JOAN WINSTON, Program Officer For more information on CSTB, see its Web site at <http://www.cstb.org>, write to CSTB, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001, call (202) 334-2605, or e-mail the CSTB at cstb@nas.edu.

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Renewing U.S. Telecommunications Research Preface The Committee on Telecommunications Research and Development was convened by the National Research Council’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board to conduct an assessment of U.S. telecommunications research and development (R&D). Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the study examines changes in the level of research support, research focus, and research time horizon in industry; discusses the importance of support for telecommunications research within universities; and addresses implications of the current research landscape for the health of the U.S. telecommunications sector, as well as the U.S. economy and society. The report comes at a time of increasing attention to the health of U.S. R&D across many sectors. Although some of the issues raised mirror those seen in other sectors, there are also marked differences with respect to research in telecommunications, some owing to the support for R&D historically provided through the Bell System. The committee’s findings and recommendations are provided in Chapter 5. Chapters 1 through 4 provide related supporting evidence and discussion. Robert W. Lucky, Chair Committee on Telecommunications Research and Development

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Renewing U.S. Telecommunications Research Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: William J. Brinkman, Princeton University, David D. Clark, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stephen Dukes, Imaginary Universes, LLC, Judith Estrin, Packet Design, James Flanagan, Rutgers University, David Goodman, Polytechnic University, Butler W. Lampson, Microsoft Corporation, Frederick Leonberger, EOvation Technologies, LLC, and Andrew J. Viterbi, Viterbi Group, LLC. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Elsa Garmire of Dartmouth College’s Thayer School of Engineering. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Renewing U.S. Telecommunications Research Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   THE IMPORTANCE OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH   4      Telecommunications—An Evolving Definition,   4      The Telecommunications Industry,   6      The Importance of Telecommunications,   8      The Importance of Continuing Investment in Telecommunications Research: Summary Comments,   10 2   THE EVOLUTION OF THE U.S. TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY AND EFFECTS ON RESEARCH   13      Bell System Research and Consequences of the Bell System’s Breakup,   14      The Emergence of New Telecommunications Players,   16      Impacts of the Changing Landscape on Investment in Research,   20      Government Support for Telecommunications Research,   26      Historical Challenges to Doing More Telecommunications Research in Academia,   29      International Support for Telecommunications Research and Development,   30 3   THE CASE FOR RENEWED INVESTMENT IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH   32      Why Research Matters,   32      Why Leadership Matters,   40

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Renewing U.S. Telecommunications Research            4   MECHANISMS AND BEST PRACTICES FOR RENEWING TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH   45      Best Practices for Long-Term Research Investments,   45      The Importance of Collaboration Across Academia and Industry,   46      The Importance of Vision,   46      Vision for the 21st Century,   47      Roadmaps,   48      Mechanisms for Industry, Government, and University Collaboration on R&D Funding,   52      Establishing an Advanced Telecommunications Research Activity,   53      Toward Increased Industry Support for Telecommunications Research,   55 5   FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   57      Findings,   57      Recommendations,   63     APPENDIXES          A  Biographies of Committee Members and Staff   71      B  List of Individuals Who Made Presentations to the Committee   80     What Is CSTB?   82