Appendix A
Glossary

Adduct A chemical compound formed by the addition of two or more substances.

Adriamycin An antibiotic.

Amplicon A piece of DNA synthesized by an amplification technique.

Bioinformatics The study of genetic or other biological information using computer, mathematics, and statistical techniques.

Contig A group of clones or sequences that represent overlapping regions of a genome.

Euchromatin Chromosomal region that is genetically active.

Fixation The use of a chemical agent to prevent autolysis and degradation of tissue by coagulating cell contents into insoluble substances.

Genome The entire chromosomal genetic material of an organism.



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OCR for page 37
Path to Effective Recovering of DNA from Formalin-Fixed Biological Samples in Natural History Collection: Workshop Summary Appendix A Glossary Adduct A chemical compound formed by the addition of two or more substances. Adriamycin An antibiotic. Amplicon A piece of DNA synthesized by an amplification technique. Bioinformatics The study of genetic or other biological information using computer, mathematics, and statistical techniques. Contig A group of clones or sequences that represent overlapping regions of a genome. Euchromatin Chromosomal region that is genetically active. Fixation The use of a chemical agent to prevent autolysis and degradation of tissue by coagulating cell contents into insoluble substances. Genome The entire chromosomal genetic material of an organism.

OCR for page 37
Path to Effective Recovering of DNA from Formalin-Fixed Biological Samples in Natural History Collection: Workshop Summary Heterochromatin Chromosomal region that is condensed during interphase and at the time of nuclear division. High throughput The rapid (and simultaneous) processing of large sample sets. Microarrays A microscope slide or other solid support on which many distinct complementary DNA or DNA oligonucleotides are patterned at high density in an addressable array. Microarrays are interrogated by hybridization to fiuorescently labeled complementary DNA or RNA to identify actively transcribed genes. Mutagenesis The development of a mutation. PCR Polymerase chain reaction; a fast and inexpensive technique for amplifying a piece of DNA. Polymerase An enzyme whose function is associated with polymers of nucleic acids. A DNA polymerase assists in DNA replication; an RNA polymerase assists the making of RNA from a DNA template. Preservation Means of protecting specimens from decay (by use of chemical agents, drying, or freezing, for example) and retaining them in collections for long periods. Sequencing Determination of the order of nucleotides (base sequences) in a DNA or RNA molecule or the order of amino acids in a protein. Sources: Science Vol. 291, Issue 5507; http://www.biochem.northwestern.edu/holmgren/glossary/