research scientist in chemistry at Yale University. Dr. Crothers received his doctorate in chemistry from the University of California, San Diego, and completed a National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellowship at the Max Planck Institute in Göttingen, Germany. His research focuses on the structure, dynamics, and protein-binding properties of nucleic acids. Current projects include characterization of the sequence dependence of curvature and fiexibility, and the role of those variables in determining the afflnity for core histones and regulatory proteins. Another focus is on the dynamics of protein-DNA complexes, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and stopped-fiow methods. His research interests include the structure, properties, and function of nucleic acids, protein-DNA interactions, mechanisms of control of gene expression, and the effects of antitumor compounds on DNA, the dependence on the activation energy for DNA bending by proteins on DNA sequence, and the physical chemistry of biological polymers, particularly nucleic acids. Dr. Crothers has done theoretical and experimental work on the physical properties of nucleic acids and on their interactions with other molecules. Dr. Crothers has received numerous awards, including the Alfred P. Sloan and Guggenheim fellowships and the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Prize. He was elected into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1986, inducted into the National Academy of Sciences in 1987, and named a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1992. He also has served on the editorial boards of numerous journals.


Timothy O’Leary is director of the Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development (BLR&D) and the Clinical Science Research and Development Service (CSR&D) of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. He holds a doctorate in physical chemistry from Stanford University and a medical degree from the University of Michigan. As BLR&D director, he oversees all basic biological or physiological research in humans or in animals that involves animal models or tissues, blood, or other specimens from humans. As CSR&D director, he supervises research on intact human beings as the unit of examination. He is certifled in anatomic pathology and in molecular genetic pathology by the American Board of Pathology and the American Board of Medical Genetics. For more than 15 years before joining the Department of Veterans Affairs, he chaired the Department of Cellular Pathology at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. He also is a reserve member of the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps. His research involves molecular changes in gastric tumors, ultrasensitive detection of



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