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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard University, the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, New England Biolabs, Inc., Sigma-Aldrich Company, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the organizations or agencies that provide support for the project, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products or organizations imply endorsement by the agencies or organizations.

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Cover: Cover design by Michele de la Menardiere. Photo of fish collection by Chip Clark, the National Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian Institution.

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