Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

The National Academies Press

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES The National Academies Press Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 The Space Studies Board is a unit of the National Research Council, which serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on scientific and technical questions of national importance. The National Research Council, jointly administered by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, brings the resources of the entire scientific and technical community to bear through its volunteer advisory committees. Support for the work of the Space Studies Board and its committees and task groups was provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract NASW-01001, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Contract DG133R04CQ0009, National Science Foundation Grant ATM-0109283, Department of the Interior Contract 05HQGR0104, and Department of Defense Contract NRO000-04-C-0174.

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 From the Chair The foreword to this 2005 annual report of the Space Studies Board provides an opportunity to comment not only on our activities for the past year, but also on the environment that has shaped those activities. As has been true for the past several years, it is an environment that is continuously evolving. Early in 2005, the leadership of NASA changed, and with it new emphases emerged. Some of the early interpretations of the 2004 Vision for Space Exploration, in which only certain aspects of space science were encouraged, disappeared and a broader mandate for science emerged. But what also emerged was fiscal reality, which precluded many of the exciting activities that were planned for NASA’s science programs. In this environment of change, there has been a continuing need to evaluate NASA’s plans against the strategies for science that have been laid down in the various NRC decadal surveys, and to assist NASA in determining how best to proceed given the reduced level of resources it will have. Coupled with this has been a continuing need to provide Congress with the assessments of NASA’s plans that it requests. As is evident in this annual report, this past year has been the busiest for the Space Studies Board in quite some time. That pace of activities is expected to continue. The space program will, it is hoped, overcome its technical and fiscal constraints and pursue the many new opportunities that lie ahead. We will attempt in 2006, as we have in all previous years, to provide useful advice on how to overcome these constraints and to pursue our future. L.A. Fisk Chair Space Studies Board

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Space Studies Board Chairs Lloyd V. Berkner (deceased), Graduate Research Center, Dallas, Texas, 1958–1962 Harry H. Hess (deceased), Princeton University, 1962–1969 Charles H. Townes, University of California at Berkeley, 1970–1973 Richard M. Goody, Harvard University, 1974–1976 A.G.W. Cameron (deceased), Harvard College Observatory, 1977–1981 Thomas M. Donahue (deceased), University of Michigan, 1982–1988 Louis J. Lanzerotti, American Telephone & Telegraph Co., Bell Laboratories, 1989–1994 Claude R. Canizares, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1994–2000 John H. McElroy, University of Texas at Arlington (retired), 2000–2003 Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan, 2003–

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Contents     FROM THE CHAIR   iii 1   CHARTER AND ORGANIZATION OF THE BOARD   1      The Origins of the Space Science Board,   1      The Space Studies Board Today,   2      Major Functions,   2      Organization,   2      Collaboration with Other National Research Council Units,   4      Performance Measures,   5      SSB Outreach and Dissemination,   7      Internship Program,   8 2   BOARD AND STANDING COMMITTEES—ACTIVITIES AND MEMBERSHIP   9      Space Studies Board,   9      Space Studies Board Membership: 2005,   9      Highlights of Space Studies Board Activities,   11      Space Studies Board Executive Committee,   12      U.S. National Committee for COSPAR,   12      Standing Committees,   13      Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics,   13      Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration,   15      Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life,   17      Committee on Solar and Space Physics,   19      Committee on Earth Studies,   21      Committee on Space Biology and Medicine,   21      Committee on Microgravity Research,   24 3   AD HOC STUDY COMMITTEES—ACTIVITIES AND MEMBERSHIP   25      Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope,   25      Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars,   26      Astronomy Science Centers: An Assessment of Best Practices and Guiding Principles for the Future,   26

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005      Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Research and Monitoring in Solar-Terrestrial Physics: A Workshop,   27      Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future,   28      Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System,   32      Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions,   33      Large Optical Systems in Space,   34      Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems,   34      Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration,   35      Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions,   35      Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars,   36      Principal-Investigator-Led Missions in the Space Sciences: Lessons Learned,   36      Priorities for Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion,   37      Review of Progress in Astronomy and Astrophysics Toward the Decadal Vision,   38      Review of Science Requirements for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array,   39      Reviews of NASA Strategic Roadmaps,   40      Scientific Context for Space Exploration,   41      Solar System Radiation Environment and NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration,   42 4   SUMMARIES OF MAJOR REPORTS   43      4.1  The Astrophysical Context of Life,   45      4.2  The Atacama Large Millimeter Array: Implications of a Potential Descope,   49      4.3  Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation,   50      4.4  Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions,   56      4.5  Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars,   58      4.6  Principal-Investigator-Led Missions in the Space Sciences,   67      4.7  Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion,   75      4.8  Review of Goals and Plans for NASA’s Space and Earth Sciences,   83      4.9  Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station,   88      4.10  Science in NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration,   92 5   SHORT REPORT   95      5.1  Review of Progress in Astronomy and Astrophysics Toward the Decadal Vision: Letter Report,   97 6   CONGRESSIONAL TESTIMONY   107      6.1  Options for Hubble Science,   109      6.2  NASA’s Earth Science Program,   117 7   CUMULATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SSB REPORTS: 1960-2005   121