3
Ad Hoc Study Committees—Activities and Membership

When a sponsor requests that the Space Studies Board conduct a study, an ad hoc committee is established for that purpose. The committee terminates when the study is completed. These study committees are subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Sec. 15, because they provide advice and recommendations to the government. The SSB and/or one of its standing committees provide oversight for ad hoc study committee activities. The following ad hoc committees were organized, met, debated, or released studies during 2005.

ASSESSMENT OF OPTIONS FOR EXTENDING THE LIFE OF THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

The ad hoc Committee on the Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope provided congressional testimony regarding its report Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope, which was released in 2004. Committee chair Louis Lanzerotti testified before the House Science Committee on February 2. Dr. Lanzerotti’s testimony was supported by comments from committee members Charles Bolden, Joe Rothenberg, and Joseph Taylor. The committee also responded to follow-up questions from Congress after the hearing. The committee’s final, edited report was published on February 28. Copies on CD-ROM were available in April 2005.

Membership*

Louis J. Lanzerotti, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, and New Jersey Institute of Technology (chair)

Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering

Charles F. Bolden, Jr., U.S. Marine Corps (retired); TechTrans International, Inc.

Rodney A. Brooks, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Jon H. Bryson, The Aerospace Corporation (retired)

Benjamin Buchbinder, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired)

Bert Bulkin, Lockheed Missiles and Space (retired)

Robert F. Dunn, U.S. Navy (retired); National Consortium for Aviation Mobility

Sandra M. Faber, University of California, Santa Cruz

B. John Garrick, Independent Consultant

Riccardo Giacconi, Johns Hopkins University; Associated Universities, Inc.

Gregory J. Harbaugh, Sun ’n Fun Fly-In, Inc.; Florida Air Museum

Tommy W. Holloway, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired)

John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired)



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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 3 Ad Hoc Study Committees—Activities and Membership When a sponsor requests that the Space Studies Board conduct a study, an ad hoc committee is established for that purpose. The committee terminates when the study is completed. These study committees are subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Sec. 15, because they provide advice and recommendations to the government. The SSB and/or one of its standing committees provide oversight for ad hoc study committee activities. The following ad hoc committees were organized, met, debated, or released studies during 2005. ASSESSMENT OF OPTIONS FOR EXTENDING THE LIFE OF THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE The ad hoc Committee on the Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope provided congressional testimony regarding its report Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope, which was released in 2004. Committee chair Louis Lanzerotti testified before the House Science Committee on February 2. Dr. Lanzerotti’s testimony was supported by comments from committee members Charles Bolden, Joe Rothenberg, and Joseph Taylor. The committee also responded to follow-up questions from Congress after the hearing. The committee’s final, edited report was published on February 28. Copies on CD-ROM were available in April 2005. Membership* Louis J. Lanzerotti, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, and New Jersey Institute of Technology (chair) Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Charles F. Bolden, Jr., U.S. Marine Corps (retired); TechTrans International, Inc. Rodney A. Brooks, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Jon H. Bryson, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) Benjamin Buchbinder, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired) Bert Bulkin, Lockheed Missiles and Space (retired) Robert F. Dunn, U.S. Navy (retired); National Consortium for Aviation Mobility Sandra M. Faber, University of California, Santa Cruz B. John Garrick, Independent Consultant Riccardo Giacconi, Johns Hopkins University; Associated Universities, Inc. Gregory J. Harbaugh, Sun ’n Fun Fly-In, Inc.; Florida Air Museum Tommy W. Holloway, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired) John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired)

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Vijay Kumar, University of Pennsylvania Forrest S. McCartney, U.S. Air Force (retired); Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired) Stephen M. Rock, Stanford University Joseph H. Rothenberg, Universal Space Network Joseph H. Taylor, Jr., Princeton University Roger E. Tetrault, McDermott International, Inc. (retired) Richard H. Truly, U.S. Navy (retired); National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sandra J. Graham, Study Director, Space Studies Board Celeste Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board * All terms ended in 2005. ASTROBIOLOGY STRATEGY FOR THE EXPLORATION OF MARS Advanced planning for the ad hoc Committee on the Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars started at COEL’s October meeting, and the committee is awaiting final approval of membership appointments. The group will meet four times in 2006, with the first meeting planned for January 23-25, 2006, at the National Academies’ Beckman Center in Irvine, California. Membership Bruce M. Jakosky, University of Colorado, Boulder (chair) Jan P. Amend, Washington University William M. Berelson, University of Southern California Ruth Blake, Yale University Susan L. Brantley, Pennsylvania State University Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey James K. Fredrickson, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Anthony Keefe, Archemix Corporation Martin Keller, Diversa Corporation Harry Y. McSween, Jr., University of Tennessee, Knoxville Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California Barbara Sherwood-Lollar, University of Toronto Andrew Steele, Carnegie Institution of Washington Roger Summons, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Meenakshi Wadhwa, The Field Museum of Natural History David H. Smith, Study Director Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant ASTRONOMY SCIENCE CENTERS: AN ASSESSMENT OF BEST PRACTICES AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR THE FUTURE The ad hoc Committee on Astronomy Science Centers (ASC) is reviewing lessons learned from experience with NASA’s ensemble of space astronomy science centers in order to recommend a set of guiding principles and best practices for consideration in making decisions about approaches to meeting the needs of the astronomy community with future science centers. During its first meeting, August 16-18 in Washington, D.C., the committee heard presentations from the Chandra, Spitzer, XMM, Rossi, and Michelson science centers, as well as from NASA representatives from the Universe Division. The committee was briefed on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory science center, which operated during the Compton mission and was closed at the end of the mission. A representative from NASA Langley Research Center spoke to the committee about the approach to science centers taken by the Earth science community for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System.

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 On October 26-27, committee chair Stephen Bohlen and study director Pam Whitney conducted site visits at four astronomy science centers in the Washington, D.C., area: NASA Goddard High Energy Astrophysics Science and Research Center, the XMM Guest Observer Center, the RXTE Guest Observer Facility and Science Operations Center, and the Space Telescope Science Institute. Site visits at the Michelson Science Center, Spitzer Science Center, and Chandra Science Center were scheduled to take place in 2006. The committee held its second meeting on November 18-19 in Washington, D.C. Matthew Mountain made a presentation on the perspectives of the Space Telescope Science Institute. Committee members heard panel discussions on Science Center User Perspectives (J. Bregman, University of Michigan; Frits Paerels, Columbia University; and Megan Donahue, Michigan State University), Archiving and Data Management (Niel Brandt, Princeton University; Gordon Richards, Johns Hopkins University; and Megan Donahue, Michigan State University), and HEASARC Perspectives (Nicholas White, GSFC High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center). On the last day of the meeting the committee discussed the report outline and scheduled writing assignments and due dates. The committee held its third meeting on February 9-11, 2006, in Washington, D.C. The committee heard from the Education and Public Outreach team members at STScI, Chandra Science Center, and Spitzer Science Center about their programs. The committee also heard from high school teachers and other educators about how these programs are used in the classroom and what changes they would like to see. The committee spent the rest of its meeting working on its report, which is expected in late 2006. Membership Steven R. Bohlen, Joint Oceanographic Institutions (chair) Roger G. Barry, University of Colorado, Boulder Stephen S. Holt, Babson College; Olin College Richard A. McCray, University of Colorado, Boulder Alexander Sandor Szalay, Johns Hopkins University Paula Szkody, University of Washington Paul Adrian Vanden Bout, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Pamela L. Whitney, Study Director Brian D. Dewhurst, Study Director Carmela J. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant DISTRIBUTED ARRAYS OF SMALL INSTRUMENTS FOR RESEARCH AND MONITORING IN SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS: A WORKSHOP In response to a request from the National Science Foundation, the ad hoc Committee on Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Research and Monitoring in Solar-Terrestrial Physics: A Workshop was formed under the auspices of the Space Studies Board’s Committee on Solar and Space Physics to explore, via a community-based workshop, the scientific rationale, infrastructure needs, and issues related to implementation of what has become known as DASI—distributed arrays of small instruments. Participants of the June 2004 workshop, held at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, addressed the relevance of distributed instruments in their future program plans. Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop, released in February 2006, summarizes the discussions at the workshop; it does not present findings or recommendations. Membership* James L. Burch, Southwest Research Institute (chair) Claudia J. Alexander, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Vassilis Angelopoulos, University of California, Berkeley Anthony Chan, Rice University James F. Drake, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park John C. Foster, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Stephen A. Fuselier, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center Sarah Gibson, National Center for Atmospheric Research Craig Kletzing, University of Iowa Gang Lu, National Center for Atmospheric Research Barry H. Mauk, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Eugene N. Parker, University of Chicago (emeritus professor) Robert W. Schunk, Utah State University Gary P. Zank, University of California, Riverside Arthur Charo, Study Director Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant * All terms ended during 2005. EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE: A COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE In response to requests from NASA, NOAA, and the U.S. Geological Survey, a decadal survey of Earth science and applications from space was organized in 2004. Developed in consultation with members of the Earth science community, the guiding principle for the study is to set an agenda for observations in support of Earth science and applications from space in which attaining practical benefits for humankind plays a role equal to that of acquiring new knowledge about Earth. Among the key tasks are to develop a consensus on the top-level scientific questions that should provide the focus for Earth and environmental observations in the period 2005-2015, and to develop a prioritized list of recommended space programs, missions, and supporting activities to address these questions. The study, “Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future” (ESAS), is being conducted by an executive committee and seven study panels organized to address the following topics: Earth Science Applications and Societal Benefits; Land-use Change, Ecosystem Dynamics, and Biodiversity; Weather (including space weather and chemical weather); Climate Variability and Change; Water Resources and the Global Hydrologic Cycle; Human Health and Security; and Solid-Earth Hazards, Resources, and Dynamics. The members of six of the panels were approved by the NRC during the first quarter. The ESAS committee held its second meeting on January 5-6 at the National Academies’ Beckman Center in Irvine, California, focusing on generating an outline and draft of an interim report that would address near-term issues that require attention prior to publication of the committee’s full decadal survey in 2006. To obtain the greatest possible input of ideas from the community about potential mission concepts addressing Earth science research and applications, the committee released a request for information, requesting responses by May 16. The committee was especially interested in ideas for missions or programs that are directly linked to societal needs and benefits. The committee established a Web site where interested members of the community could stay up to date with the study and provide views to the committee. Also during the first quarter, members of the committee gave presentations at the annual meeting of the American Meteorological Society and at meetings of NASA roadmap and Earth science advisory committees. The ESAS interim report, Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation, was released on April 25. Issues addressed in the interim report include (1) the absence of a robust mission queue for the future Earth science missions that will build logically on the highly successful EOS missions; (2) a precarious plan to use instruments on the nation’s next generation of weather satellites; and (3) threats to the

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 viability of programs for advanced technologies, research and analysis, and climate data programs. Committee co-chair Berrien Moore testified on the interim report at a hearing of the House Committee on Science on April 28. The following ESAS panels met during the second quarter: Water Resources and the Global Hydrologic Cycle, May 9-10, Boulder, Colorado; Weather, June 22-23, Boulder, Colorado; and Solid-Earth Hazards, Resources, and Dynamics, June 28-29, Washington, D.C. During the third quarter, the steering committee met in Washington, D.C., and the Panel on Climate Variability and Change met at Pennsylvania State University. On August 28-September 1, at the National Academies’ Beckman Center in Irvine, California, the steering committee and the following panels met jointly: Earth Science Applications and Societal Benefits; Land-use Change, Ecosystem Dynamics, and Biodiversity; Weather (including space weather and chemical weather); Water Resources and the Global Hydrologic Cycle; Human Health and Security; and Solid-Earth Hazards, Resources, and Dynamics. In addition to enabling progress on the panel reports, the August meeting in Irvine provided an opportunity for participants in the survey to discuss issues of mutual interest and to agree on a common framework for the final report. Speakers in open sessions reviewed current agency plans and international programs in Earth science and applications from space. Presentations to individual panels included discussions on particular technologies (e.g., space-based lidar) and future missions (e.g., precipitation measurements after the Global Precipitation Measurement mission). The final version of the survey’s interim report, Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation, was published in September. Its Summary is reprinted in Chapter 4, pp. 50-55. During the fourth quarter, the ESAS study committee and each of the panels met once, as follows: Study committee, October 25-26, Washington, D.C.; Earth Science Applications and Societal Benefits, October 31-November 1, Washington, D.C.; Land-use Change, Ecosystem Dynamics, and Biodiversity, November 17-18, Washington, D.C.; Weather (including space weather and chemical weather), November 11-12, Woods Hole, Massachusetts; Climate Variability and Change, October 24-26, Washington, D.C.; Water Resources and the Global Hydrologic Cycle, November 14-15, Seattle, Washington; Human Health and Security, December 1-2, Washington, D.C.; and Solid-Earth Hazards, Resources, and Dynamics, November 17-18, Washington, D.C. In addition, the committee and the panels held numerous teleconferences. Members of the Earth Science Applications and Societal Benefits panel also attended most of the meetings of the other panels. Meetings of the committee and panels that had not already held their third and final meetings were scheduled for 2006. Representatives from the committee and the panels were present on December 6 for a well-attended “town hall” community forum, held in conjunction with the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union. A town hall event was also planned for January 30, 2006, at the annual meeting of the American Meteorological Society. The final report from the committee, which will include a prioritized list of potential activities to advance Earth science and applications from space, is expected in late 2006. ESAS Executive Committee Membership Richard A. Anthes, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (co-chair) Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire (co-chair) James G. Anderson, Harvard University Susan K. Avery, University of Colorado, Boulder Eric J. Barron, Pennsylvania State University Otis B. Brown, Jr., University of Miami Susan L. Cutter, University of South Carolina William B. Gail, Vexcel Corporation Bradford H. Hager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Anthony Hollingsworth, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (retired) Anthony C. Janetos, H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Kathryn A. Kelly, University of Washington Neal F. Lane, Rice University Dennis P. Lettenmaier, University of Washington Bruce D. Marcus, TRW Inc. (retired) Aram M. Mika,* Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company Risa I. Palm,­† Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College Warren M. Washington, National Center for Atmospheric Research Mark L. Wilson, University of Michigan Mary Lou Zoback, U.S. Geological Survey Arthur Charo, Study Director, Space Studies Board Anne Linn, Senior Program Officer, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources‡ Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board * Deceased May 18, 2005. ­† Term ended during 2005. ‡ Through May 2005. ESAS Panel on Earth Science Applications and Societal Benefits Membership Anthony C. Janetos, H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment (chair) Roberta Balstad, Columbia University (vice chair) Jay Apt, Carnegie Mellon University Philip E. Ardanuy, Raytheon Information Solutions Randall Friedl, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Michael F. Goodchild, University of California, Santa Barbara Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Gordon McBean, University of Western Ontario David L. Skole, Michigan State University Leigh Welling, Crown of the Continent Learning Center Thomas J. Wilbanks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Gary W. Yohe, Wesleyan University Arthur Charo, Study Director, Space Studies Board Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ESAS Panel on Land-use Change, Ecosystem Dynamics, and Biodiversity Membership Otis B. Brown, Jr., University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences (chair) Ruth S. Defries, University of Maryland, College Park (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Christopher B. Field, Carnegie Institution of Washington Inez Y. Fung, University of California, Berkeley Marc Levy, Center for International Earth Sciences Information Network James J. McCarthy, Harvard University Jerry M. Melillo, Marine Biological Laboratory Walter V. Reid, Stanford University David S. Schimel, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Arthur Charo, Study Director, Space Studies Board Dan Walker, Scholar, Ocean Studies Board Carmela J. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 ESAS Panel on Weather Membership Susan K. Avery, University of Colorado, Boulder (chair) Thomas H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State University (vice chair) Edward V. Browell, NASA Langley Research Center Lt. Col. William B. Cade III, Air Force Weather Agency Bradley R. Colman, National Weather Service Jenni-Louise Evans, Pennsylvania State University Eugenia Kalnay, University of Maryland, College Park Roger A. Pielke, Jr., University of Colorado, Boulder Christopher Ruf, University of Michigan Carl F. Schueler, Raytheon Company Jeremy Usher, Weathernews Americas, Inc. Christopher S. Velden, University of Wisconsin-Madison Robert A. Weller, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Arthur Charo, Study Director, Space Studies Board Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ESAS Panel on Climate Variability and Change Membership Eric J. Barron, Pennsylvania State University (chair) Joyce E. Penner, University of Michigan (vice chair) Gregory Carbone, University of South Carolina James A. Coakley, Jr., Oregon State University Sarah T. Gille, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Kenneth C. Jezek, Ohio State University Judith L. Lean, Naval Research Laboratory Gundrun Magnusdottir, University of California, Irvine Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Michael Oppenheimer, Princeton University Claire L. Parkinson, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Michael J. Prather, University of California, Irvine Mark R. Schoeberl, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Byron D. Tapley, University of Texas, Austin Arthur Charo, Study Director, Space Studies Board Celeste Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ESAS Panel on Water Resources and the Global Hydrologic Cycle Membership Dennis P. Lettenmaier, University of Washington (chair) Anne W. Nolin, University of Oregon (vice chair) Wilfried H. Brutsaert, Cornell University Anny Cazenave, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) Carol Anne Clayson, Florida State University Jeff Dozier, University of California, Santa Barbara Dara Entekhabi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Richard Forster, University of Utah Charles D.D. Howard, Independent Consultant Christian D. Kummerow, Colorado State University Steven W. Running, University of Montana Charles J. Vorosmarty, University of New Hampshire

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Arthur Charo, Study Director, Space Studies Board William Logan, Senior Staff Officer, Water Science and Technology Board Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ESAS Panel on Human Health and Security Membership Mark L. Wilson, University of Michigan (chair) Rita R. Colwell, University of Maryland, College Park (vice chair) Daniel G. Brown, University of Michigan Walter F. Dabberdt, Vaisala, Inc. William F. Davenhall, ESRI John R. Delaney, University of Washington Gregory Glass, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Daniel J. Jacob, Harvard University James H. Maguire, University of Maryland at Baltimore School of Medicine Paul M. Maughan, MyoSite Diagnostics, Inc. Joan B. Rose, Michigan State University Ronald B. Smith, Yale University Patricia Ann Tester, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Arthur Charo, Study Director, Space Studies Board Raymond Wassel, Senior Program Officer, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ESAS Panel on Solid-Earth Hazards, Resources, and Dynamics Membership Bradford H. Hager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chair) Susan L. Brantley, Pennsylvania State University (vice chair) Jeremy Bloxham, Harvard University Richard K. Eisner, Governor’s Office of Emergency Services Alexander F.H. Goetz, University of Colorado, Boulder Christian J. Johannsen, Purdue University James W. Kirchner, University of California, Berkeley William I. Rose, Michigan Technological University Haresh C. Shah, Stanford University Dirk Smit, Shell E&P Technology Company Howard A. Zebker, Stanford University Maria T. Zuber, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Arthur Charo, Study Director, Space Studies Board Dan Walker, Scholar, Ocean Studies Board Carmela J. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board EXPLORING ORGANIC ENVIRONMENTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Task Group on Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (TGOESS), a joint ad hoc committee under the auspices of COMPLEX, COEL, and the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, finalized its report Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System, which looks at the sources, location, and history of organic carbon in the solar system. TGOESS did not meet during 2005. Publication of the report is expected in fall 2006.

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Membership* James P. Ferris, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (chair) Luann Becker, University of California, Santa Barbara Kristie A. Boering, University of California, Berkeley George D. Cody, Carnegie Institution of Washington G. Barney Ellison, University of Colorado John M. Hayes, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Robert E. Johnson, University of Virginia William Klemperer, Harvard University Karen J. Meech, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Keith S. Noll, Space Telescope Science Institute Martin Saunders, Yale University David H. Smith, Study Director, Space Studies Board Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Christopher K. Murphy, Senior Program Officer, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant * All terms ended during 2005. EXTENDING THE EFFECTIVE LIFETIMES OF EARTH OBSERVING RESEARCH MISSIONS The ad hoc committee for the study “Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions” completed its report, Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions, in November. Its Executive Summary is reprinted in Chapter 4, pp. 56-57. The report evaluated the effectiveness of the mission extension paradigm as a means for managing mission life cycles, assessed whether the NASA Senior Review process provides an appropriate foundation to implement an Earth science mission extension process, and identified modifications to the Senior Review process that could enhance its value for Earth science missions. Membership Michael H. Freilich, Oregon State University, Chair Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland Carol Anne Clayson, Florida State University William B. Gail, Vexcel Corporation William C. Gibson, Southwest Research Institute Sarah T. Gille, University of California, San Diego Ross N. Hoffman, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Bruce D. Marcus, TRW, Inc. (retired) Steven W. Running, University of Montana Carl F. Schueler, Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing Robert A. Shuchman, Altarum, Inc. Roy W. Spencer, University of Alabama William Stoney, Mitretek Corporation Jan Svejkovsky, Ocean Imaging, Inc. Kurt Thome, University of Arizona John R.G. Townshend, University of Maryland Arthur Charo, Study Director Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant Catherine A. Gruber, Assistant Editor

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 LARGE OPTICAL SYSTEMS IN SPACE During the first quarter, SSB staff members worked with several agencies, including NASA, the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the U.S. Air Force, NOAA, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to obtain sponsorship for a study on large optical systems in space (LOIS). During the second quarter, NASA and NRO jointly requested the study, which will organize and conduct a survey and analysis of technology opportunities and issues relevant to development and operation of medium-size and large optical systems in space. Access to classified information will be required, and part of the resulting report is expected to be classified. NRC staff began soliciting suggestions for candidate committee members—especially individuals with active security clearances. A chair and several committee members were selected during the third quarter. In the fourth quarter, however, NASA suggested revisions to the statement of task. Committee formation was suspended, and the previously selected chair had to withdraw for personal reasons. At the end of 2005, the SSB was awaiting the revised statement of task from NASA (which was received in March 2006). Provisional Membership J. Roger P. Angel, University of Arizona Wanda M. Austin, The Aerospace Corporation James H. Burge, University of Arizona Michael J. Daugherty, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) Robert J. Hermann, Global Technology Partners, LLC Vijay Kumar, University of Pennsylvania David W. Miller, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Peter A. Pilewskie, University of Colorado, Boulder Ray A. Williamson, George Washington University Pamela L. Whitney, Study Director Carmela J. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant LIMITS OF ORGANIC LIFE IN PLANETARY SYSTEMS The Task Group on the Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems, a joint ad hoc committee of the Space Studies Board and the Board on Life Sciences, met for the final time on March 14-16 at the National Academies’ Beckman Center in Irvine, California. This meeting was devoted to an extensive examination of extrasolar planetary environments and their potential biomarkers and to an update on the initial results from the Cassini-Huygens mission investigations of Titan. In addition to receiving presentations, the task group made extensive revisions to the draft outline, split into writing groups, and began to integrate individual ideas to form what would be the first draft of the report. During the remainder of 2005, task group members continued to work on the report. Publication of the report is anticipated in the third quarter of 2006. Membership John A. Baross, University of Washington (chair) Steven A. Benner, University of Florida George D. Cody, Carnegie Institution of Washington Shelley D. Copley, University of Colorado, Boulder Norman R. Pace, University of Colorado, Boulder James H. Scott, Carnegie Institution of Washington Robert Shapiro, New York University Mitchell L. Sogin, Marine Biological Laboratory Jeffrey L. Stein, Quorex Pharmaceuticals Roger Summons, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Jack W. Szostak, Massachusetts General Hospital

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 David H. Smith, Study Director Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant MEETING THE WORKFORCE NEEDS FOR THE NATIONAL VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION The Committee on Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration was organized under the auspices of the SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board to conduct a study to assess the current and future supply of personnel for a qualified U.S. aerospace workforce that will be required to meet the needs of NASA and the larger aerospace science and engineering community in the context of the nation’s long-term space exploration vision. The committee met by teleconference on December 21 to organize a 2-day information-gathering workshop, which was held in January 2006 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C. An interim report, Issues Affecting the Future of the U.S. Space Science and Engineering Workforce: Interim Report, was released in June 2006. Membership David C. Black, Universities Space Research Association (co-chair) Daniel E. Hastings, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (co-chair) Burt S. Barnow, Johns Hopkins University John W. Douglass, Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc. Ray M. Haynes, Northrop Grumman Space Technology Margaret G. Kivelson, University of California, Los Angeles William Pomerantz, X PRIZE Foundation Joseph H. Rothenberg, Universal Space Network Kathryn C. Thornton, University of Virginia Joseph K. Alexander, Study Director Dwayne Day, Research Associate Celeste Naylor, Senior Program Assistant PLANETARY PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR VENUS MISSIONS The ad hoc Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions, established under the auspices of COEL, was officially appointed during the third quarter and tasked with assessing the existing planetary protection requirements for spacecraft missions to Venus. The committee met in conjunction with COEL’s October 3-5 meeting in Boulder, Colorado, and held a subsequent conference call to finalize the text of the report. A draft letter report was completed in late October and sent to external reviewers on November 2. The final letter report, “Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions,” was released on February 14, 2006. Membership Jack W. Szostak, Massachusetts General Hospital (chair) Ruth Blake, Yale University Michael J. Daly, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences David H. Grinspoon, Southwest Research Institute Anthony Keefe, Archemix Corporation Gary J. Olsen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Robert L. Riemer, Study Director David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 PREVENTING THE FORWARD CONTAMINATION OF MARS The ad hoc Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars prepared its report for external review during the first quarter and revised its draft report in response to review during the second quarter. On July 25, committee chair Christopher Chyba gave prerelease briefings on the prepublication version of Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars to staff of the Senate Subcommittee on Science and Space and the House Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics and to NASA managers. On July 26, the prepublication version of the report was released, and Dr. Chyba briefed NASA’s Planetary Protection Advisory Committee, a subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council, on the report results. Committee members David Paige, John Niehoff, and Margaret Race presented the results of the report to the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) in November. Dr. Paige presented the report to the NRC Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (COEL) at its January 2006 meeting and is scheduled to present it at the 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly to be held in Beijing, China, July 16-23, 2006. The final report was published in March 2006. Its Executive Summary is reprinted in Chapter 4, pp. 58-66. Membership Christopher F. Chyba, Princeton University (chair) Stephen Clifford, Lunar and Planetary Institute Alan Delamere, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation Martin S. Favero, Johnson & Johnson Company Eric J. Mathur, Diversa Corporation John C. Niehoff, Science Applications International Corporation Gian Gabriele Ori, Universitá d’Annunzio David A. Paige, University of California, Los Angeles Ann Pearson, Harvard University John C. Priscu, Montana State University Margaret S. Race, SETI Institute Mitchell L. Sogin, Marine Biological Laboratory Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, University of New Mexico Pamela L. Whitney, Study Director Carmela J. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant PRINCIPAL-INVESTIGATOR-LED MISSIONS IN THE SPACE SCIENCES: LESSONS LEARNED The ad hoc Committee on Principal Investigator (PI)-Led Missions in the Space Sciences continued its work in exploring factors that have contributed to the successes and challenges of PI-led missions, mainly in the Discovery and Explorer lines, and considering the Mars Scout and New Frontiers PI mission lines. The committee met on February 1-3 at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, to obtain perspectives from PIs, project managers, and agency officials; work on the first draft of the report; draft findings and recommendations; and agree on a schedule for report development. Al Diaz, Associate Administrator for Science in NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, answered via videoconference the committee’s questions on PI-led missions. Other presentations included interviews with PIs and project managers on PI-led missions and perspectives from Charles Elachi and Tom Gavin (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Michael Malin (Malin Space Science Systems), Edward Stone (Caltech), Paul Hertz (NASA Headquarters), Anthony Comberiate (GSFC), and William Cantrell (NASA Headquarters). The committee completed its draft report during the second quarter and its response to external review in the third quarter. During the fourth quarter, the committee completed its report, Principal-Investigator-Led Missions in the Space Sciences, and on December 15 committee chair Janet Luhmann briefed the NASA Science Mission Directorate’s associate administrator and deputy associate administrator, as well as other NASA managers, on the results of the

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 study. At this meeting, Malcolm Peterson presented the results of the concurrent National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) report NASA: Principal Investigator Led Missions in Space Science. The NRC and NAPA collaborated on their studies. A prepublication version of the NRC report was released to the public on December 16. The final report was published in March 2006. Its Executive Summary is reprinted in Chapter 4, pp. 67-74. Membership Janet G. Luhmann, University of California, Berkeley (chair) James S. Barrowman, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (retired) Mary Chiu, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (retired) Hugh H. Kieffer, U.S. Geological Survey (retired) John W. Leibacher, National Solar Observatory Gary J. Melnick, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics H. Warren Moos, Johns Hopkins University Kathryn Schmoll, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Alan M. Title, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center Pamela L. Whitney, Study Director Carmela J. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant PRIORITIES FOR SPACE SCIENCE ENABLED BY NUCLEAR POWER AND PROPULSION The ad hoc Committee on Priorities for Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion was organized jointly with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board to identify meritorious space science missions that could be enabled in the time frame beyond 2015 by development of advanced spacecraft nuclear power and propulsion systems. The committee consists of its Steering Group and three supporting panels—Solar System Exploration, Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Solar and Space Physics. The Steering Group and panels held all of their meetings in 2004 and did not meet in 2005. The Steering Group synthesized the reports of the three science panels and assembled a draft of the report in March. It was sent to eight reviewers in early April, revised in May and June, and approved for release on July 22. A prepublication version of the Executive Summary of the report, Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion, was delivered to NASA on August 25 and was released to the general public on August 30. The report was published in March 2006. Its Executive Summary is reprinted in Chapter 4, pp. 75-82. Steering Group Membership William A. Anders, General Dynamics Corporation (retired) (co-chair) Ellen R. Stofan, Proxemy Research, Inc. (co-chair) Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University William D. Cochran, University of Texas, Austin Robert Farquhar, Johns Hopkins University Sergio B. Guarro, The Aerospace Corporation William W. Hoover, U.S. Air Force (retired) Steven D. Howe, Los Alamos National Laboratory William J. Madia, Battelle Memorial Institute William B. McKinnon, Washington University Nathan A. Schwadron, Southwest Research Institute David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Alan C. Angleman, Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Astronomy and Astrophysics Panel Membership E. Sterl Phinney III, California Institute of Technology (chair) William D. Cochran, University of Texas, Austin (vice chair) Gary Bernstein, University of Pennsylvania Webster C. Cash, University of Colorado, Boulder Michael S. Kaplan, The Boeing Company Victoria M. Kaspi, McGill University Daniel F. Lester, University of Texas, Austin Ho Jung Paik, University of Maryland Edward L. Wright, University of California, Los Angeles Solar and Space Physics Panel Membership William C. Feldman, Los Alamos National Laboratory (chair) Nathan A. Schwadron, Southwest Research Institute (vice chair) Stephen W. Bougher, University of Michigan Herbert Funsten, Los Alamos National Laboratory Umran S. Inan, Stanford University William S. Kurth, University of Iowa Paulett C. Liewer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley Ralph McNutt, Johns Hopkins University Mark E. Wiedenbeck, California Institute of Technology Solar System Exploration Panel Membership Richard P. Binzel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chair) Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University (vice chair) Anita L. Cochran, University of Texas, Austin Michael Duke, Colorado School of Mines Martha S. Gilmore, Wesleyan University Heidi B. Hammel, Space Science Institute James W. Head III, Brown University Krishan Khurana, University of California, Los Angeles Ralph Lorenz, University of Arizona Louise M. Prockter, Johns Hopkins University Thomas R. Spilker, Jet Propulsion Laboratory David J. Stevenson, California Institute of Technology REVIEW OF PROGRESS IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS TOWARD THE DECADAL VISION In the fall of 2004, the ad hoc Committee on Review of Progress in Astronomy and Astrophysics Toward the Decadal Vision was organized to prepare a letter report (formerly referred to as the Mid-Course Review) that would review scientific discoveries and technical advances in astronomy and astrophysics over the 5 years since publication of the decadal survey, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, and address the implications of those developments and recent changes in the federal program. The committee’s letter report, “Review of Progress in Astronomy and Astrophysics Toward the Decadal Vision,” was released on February 11, 2005. The letter report is reprinted in Chapter 5.

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Membership* C. Megan Urry, Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics (chair) Lars Bildsten, University of California, Santa Barbara Roger D. Blandford, Stanford University John E. Carlstrom, University of Chicago Neal J. Evans II, University of Texas, Austin Jacqueline N. Hewitt, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Craig James Hogan, University of Washington John P. Huchra, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Christopher F. McKee, University of California, Berkeley Anneila I. Sargent, California Institute of Technology Sara Seager, Carnegie Institution of Washington Charles E. Woodward, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Brian D. Dewhurst, Research Associate Pamela A. Lewis, Project Associate David B. Lang, Research Assistant * All terms ended during 2005. REVIEW OF SCIENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ATACAMA LARGE MILLIMETER ARRAY The ad hoc Committee to Review the Science Requirements for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), organized jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy, was appointed to review the technical requirements for ALMA and prepare a report analyzing the impact on its performance and scientific merit of a reduction in the number of elements in the array. ALMA is a multinational project being carried out between North America (the United States and Canada), Europe (the European Southern Observatory [ESO] and Spain), and Japan. Initial bidding on construction of the individual antennas in the array has raised the possibility that the project may need to be descoped in order to manage its cost. The ALMA committee met at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, on May 6-7, devoting most of the meeting to the generation of an outline and initial draft of the report. The committee’s report, The Atacama Large Millimeter Array: Implications of a Potential Descope, was released on June 10 as a prepublication version and was published in final form on October 27, 2005. Its Summary is reprinted in Chapter 4, p. 49. Membership* Roger D. Blandford, Stanford University (chair) Donald C. Backer, University of California, Berkeley John E. Carlstrom, University of Chicago Sarah E. Church, Stanford University Lennox L. Cowie, University of Hawaii, Manoa Aaron S. Evans, State University of New York at Stony Brook David J. Hollenbach, NASA Ames Research Center Anthony C. Readhead, California Institute of Technology Mark J. Reid, Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory David N. Spergel, Princeton University Brian Dewhurst, Study Director Donald C. Shapero, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy Celeste Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board * All terms ended during 2005.

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 REVIEWS OF NASA STRATEGIC ROADMAPS The Space Studies Board, working jointly with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, organized independent reviews of seven strategic roadmaps that were developed under direction of NASA’s Advanced Planning and Integration Office. These strategic roadmaps were intended to present specific objectives, priorities, milestones, decision points, and implementation approaches in support of the agency’s 13 top-level objectives. The reviews evaluated the roadmaps in terms of responsiveness to NASA’s vision, mission, and major strategic goals; intrinsic scientific merit and potential for contributing decisive or transformational technological or scientific advancements; coverage of crosscutting issues; clarity of priorities and the process for setting priorities; and realism with respect to necessary resources, technologies, facilities, and schedule. Two separate review panels were established—one to review the six science roadmaps and one to review plans for use of the International Space Station. The Science Panel met on June 13-15 in Washington, D.C., to hear presentations from representatives for each of the NASA science roadmap teams and prepare an outline and initial draft of the report. The report, Review of Goals and Plans for NASA’s Space and Earth Sciences, was delivered to NASA in prepublication form on August 2. The final report was published in March 2006. Its Executive Summary is reprinted in Chapter 4, pp. 83-87. The report addressed the following topics: Robotic and human exploration of Mars; A sustained program of solar system exploration; Advanced telescope searches for Earth-like planets and habitable environments around neighboring stars; Exploration of the origin, evolution, structure, and destiny of the universe; Earth science and applications; and Sun-solar system connections. The Space Station Panel met on October 3-5 in Washington, D.C., to hear briefings from NASA officials regarding potential NASA plans relevant to the completion of the International Space Station and its utilization for research to support human exploration. The panel began drafting its report at that meeting and completed it in the weeks that followed. The report, Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station, was delivered to NASA on November 22 and released in prepublication form the following week. The final report was published in March 2006. Its Executive Summary is reprinted in Chapter 4, pp. 88-91. Science Panel Membership* George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (chair) Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University Wendy M. Calvin, University of Nevada, Reno William D. Cochran, University of Texas, Austin Edward Friedman, The Boeing Company Sarah T. Gille, Scripps Institution of Oceanography John Haas, Applied Research Associates, Inc. Michael G. Hauser, Space Telescope Science Institute Christopher O. Justice, University of Maryland, College Park John W. Leibacher, National Solar Observatory Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Steven R. Majewski, University of Virginia Barry H. Mauk, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Louise M. Prockter, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory J. Craig Wheeler, University of Texas, Austin Sandra J. Graham, Study Director Celeste Naylor, Senior Program Assistant * All terms ended during 2005.

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Space Station Panel Membership* Mary J. Osborn, University of Connecticut Health Center (chair) Portonovo S. Ayyaswamy, University of Pennsylvania James P. Bagian, Veterans Health Administration Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Los Alamos National Laboratory Michael J. Econs, Indiana University School of Medicine Tommy W. Holloway, Independent Consultant Herman J. Merte, Jr., University of Michigan James Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University James G. Quintiere, University of Maryland, College Park Dennis W. Readey, Colorado School of Mines Danny A. Riley, Medical College of Wisconsin Carol E.H. Scott-Conner, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics Peter Suedfeld, University of British Columbia Kenneth T. Wheeler, Jr., Wheeler Scientific Consultants, Inc. Sandra J. Graham, Study Director Celeste Naylor, Senior Program Assistant * All terms ended during 2005. SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR SPACE EXPLORATION The ad hoc Committee on the Scientific Context for Space Exploration met on November 17-19, 2004, at the National Academies’ Beckman Center in Irvine, California. During the meeting the committee reviewed developments since publication of the report on the 2003 NRC space policy workshop, held extended discussions with NASA’s associate administrator for science and the NASA director of advanced planning, and received briefings on relevant aspects of the report of the President’s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy1 and on related space exploration planning in Europe. The committee also received input from the disciplinary standing committees of the Space Studies Board regarding recent relevant NRC science strategy reports and the implications of the strategy reports for the new space exploration goals. All of those discussions served to inform the committee’s deliberations, which led to its consensus report. The committee’s report, Science in NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration, was released on February 2, 2005. Its Summary is reprinted in Chapter 4, pp. 92-94. Membership* Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (chair) Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Ana P. Barros, Duke University Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University Roger D. Blandford, Stanford University Radford Byerly, Jr., University of Colorado, Boulder Donald E. Ingber, Harvard Medical School Tamara E. Jernigan, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Margaret G. Kivelson, University of California, Los Angeles Laurie Leshin, Arizona State University Suzanne Oparil, University of Alabama, Birmingham George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) Ronald F. Probstein, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dennis W. Readey, Colorado School of Mines 1 A Journey to Inspire, Innovate, and Discover: Report of the President’s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, ISBN 0-16-073075-9, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 2004.

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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2005 Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology Harvey D. Tananbaum, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory J. Craig Wheeler, University of Texas, Austin A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Joseph K. Alexander, Study Director David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer Claudette K. Baylor-Fleming, Administrative Assistant * All terms ended during 2005. SOLAR SYSTEM RADIATION ENVIRONMENT AND NASA’S VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION CSSP chair Dan Baker and SSB staff officer Art Charo served on the organizing committee for a workshop held on October 16-20 in Wintergreen, Virginia, that brought together more than 100 members of the space science, planetary science, radiation physics, spaceflight operations, and exploration engineering communities. The goals of this Workshop on Solar System Radiation Environment and NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration were to: Increase awareness and understanding of the complex array of solar and space physics issues pertinent to the environments of Earth, the Moon, and Mars; Identify compelling research goals necessary to ensure the success of the Vision for Space Exploration in these environments; and Discuss the directions that research in these fields should take over the coming decades in order to achieve those goals. A particular emphasis of the workshop was on improving predictions of solar energetic particle storms, the solar eruptions that produce them, and the impact of solar storms on the Earth, Moon, and Mars environments. Members of CSSP were appointed to serve on an ad hoc committee to write a report summarizing workshop discussions on issues such as the current characterization of the heliospheric radiation environment, physical mechanisms of energetic particle acceleration and transport, radiation health hazards to astronauts, radiation effects on materials and spacecraft systems, and mitigation techniques and strategies, including forecasting and operational schemes. The anticipated release of the report is in summer 2006. Membership Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder (chair) Leslie A. Braby, Texas A&M University-College Station Stanley Curtis, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Jack R. Jokipii, University of Arizona William S. Lewis, Southwest Research Institute Jack Miller, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Walter Schimmerling, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Howard J. Singer, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Leonard Strachan, Jr., Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Lawrence W. Townsend, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Ronald E. Turner, ANSER (Analytic Services, Inc.) Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Dwayne Day, Study Director Arthur Charo, Senior Program Officer Celeste Naylor, Senior Program Assistant