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6 Search and Rescue aboard satellites that are used to detect the distress signals. INTRODUCTION C-S-equipped satellites are in low Earth orbit (LEO) and in NASA participation in search and rescue efforts is geostationary Earth orbit (GEO)—the LEOSAR and clearly defined in a series of international and national un- GEOSAR systems, respectively. The ground segment con- derstandings, agreements, and interagency plans. The United sists of several components. Ground receiving stations or States is a signatory to the 1988 International COSPAS- local users terminals (LUTs) receive and process the satel- SARSAT1 (C-S) Program Agreement.2 C-S is an opera- lite downlink signal to generate distress alerts. Mission con- tional satellite-based program, and the National Oceanic and trol centers (MCCs) receive alerts produced by LUTs and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is the lead U.S. forward them to rescue coordination centers, search and res- agency for C-S operations.3 NASA participation in search cue points of contacts, or other MCCs.8 and rescue (SAR) efforts is governed by a series of memo- Because of their high altitude and fixed position with randa of agreement (MOA). NASA is a member of the Na- respect to Earth, GEOSAR satellites cannot independently tional Search and Rescue Committee (NSARC), a standing locate a beacon, and can provide location information only if interagency committee that oversees the National Search and the beacon contains a navigation receiver and transmits its Rescue Plan (NSP).4 The NSARC assigns and coordinates position. However, the GEOSAR system can provide almost SAR responsibilities, develops and implements SAR require- immediate alerting in the footprint of the GEOSAR satellite. ments and standards, outlines joint SAR tasking, fosters in- The LEOSAR system provides coverage of the polar regions ternational cooperation, and promotes close cooperation be- (which are beyond the coverage of geostationary satellites), tween military and civil authorities for the provision of SAR can calculate the location of distress events using Doppler services.5 The NSP provides guidance to federal agencies for processing techniques, and is less susceptible to obstructions development of SAR-related systems, including cooperation that may block a beacon signal in a given direction because for the development, coordination, and improvement of SAR the satellite is continuously moving with respect to the bea- services, and states that NASA supports C-S objectives con. However, LEOSAR satellite orbit patterns result in non- through research and development (R&D) or application of continuous Earth coverage, and so delays are possible be- technology6 and is the primary R&D agency for the follow- tween beacon activation and the generation of an alert on to the C-S program, called the Distress Alerting Satellite message.9 System (DASS).7 The draft DASS implementation plan In September 1997, a Canadian study revealed that a clearly defines the program goals and objectives in the con- constellation of mid-Earth-orbiting (MEO) satellites could text of the numerous international and U.S. interagency be used to augment the existing C-S system by providing a memoranda of agreement that govern search and rescue. vastly improved space-based distress alerting and locating However, this plan is not a binding document and does not capability.10 In 2000, the United States, the European Com- yet represent the approved positions of the participating mission, and Russia began consultations with C-S regarding agencies. the feasibility of installing SAR instruments on their MEO The C-S system has user, space, and ground segments. navigation satellite systems—Global Positioning System The user segment is composed of radio beacons for aviation, (GPS), Galileo, and GLONASS. These MEOSAR constella- maritime, and personal use that transmit signals during dis- tions could eventually become components of an interna- tress situations. The space segment consists of instruments tional C-S MEOSAR system.11 NASA, in coordination with 45

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46 REVIEW OF THE SPACE COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM the U.S. Air Force Global Positioning System Program Of- for 406-MHz beacon signals, but the system will up-convert fice and Sandia National Laboratories, determined that the all incoming signals to the band at 1544.8-1545.0 MHz for rebroadcast.21 GPS constellation would be the best and most cost-effective MEO constellation to host the SAR instruments. This project The DASS ground segment will be composed of is called DASS.12 MEOLUTs and the existing C-S MCC network. The NASA has committed funds and personnel for the de- MEOLUT will receive and process satellite downlinks, cal- velopment of a proof-of-concept (POC) system for DASS. culate beacon locations, and forward this information to the The DASS POC project is designed to confirm the feasibil- MCC. The MCC network will perform the same basic func- ity of the MEOSAR concept, evaluate the operational im- tions for MEOSAR alerts as it currently provides for LEOSAR and GEOSAR alerts.22 pact to C-S of adding a MEOSAR component, determine what modifications will be required prior to the beginning of NASA chairs the DASS Management Working Group the demonstration and evaluation (D&E) phase, and estab- (DMWG), which consists of NASA, NOAA, the U.S. Coast lish the scope and content of the D&E phase. Guard, the USAF, the DOE, and other agencies as appropri- NASA POC funding paid for integration of a DASS- ate. The DMWG provides interagency planning and direc- modified payload on nine GPS Block II satellites.13 The tion during the development, POC, and D&E of DASS.23 Air Force intends to incorporate the DASS payload on all The Goddard Space Flight Center SAR Mission Office remaining Block IIR/IIF satellites.14 The POC space seg- is the NASA lead for SAR R&D. This office performs C-S ment will receive 406-MHz beacon signals through an ex- R&D and provides technical support to NOAA and other federal agencies in their operation and use of C-S.24 It is also tant UHF antenna. Signals, without any onboard process- ing, will be relayed to the MEOLUT through an existing responsible for developing the DASS system performance S-band antenna. The downlink frequency differs from the requirements for the design, procurement, and operation of internationally recognized 1544-1545 MHz distress and the DASS prototype ground segment; for defining and con- safety communications frequency used by C-S, but its use ducting the POC phase testing; and for supporting DOE on in no way inhibits the ability of POC DASS to demonstrate DASS POC implementation using the existing DOE payload SAR repeater capability. on the GPS space segment. NASA will fund the POC ground segment until POC completion.25 NASA is funding the installation of a POC ground sta- tion at GSFC.15 The four-antenna POC and demonstration NASA maintains a multi-function laboratory called the DASS ground station will be capable of tracking signals at SARLab at GSFC for C-S support and to perform DASS both the S-band and the L-band to allow visibility both of POC R&D. The SARLab consolidates all R&D functions of POC DASS signals and of C-S L-band signals from opera- the SAR Mission Office into one unit, including a search tional LEOSAR and GEOSAR satellites. The ground station planning station and two combined ground stations: the Sys- will be used to verify and characterize the DASS concept tem Evaluation and Development Laboratory (SEDL) and the new DASS POC ground station.26 NASA uses the SEDL after sufficient POC payloads are on orbit to allow simulta- neous four-satellite visibility. In the United States, distress to support C-S operations. The SEDL also addresses emer- alert data will not be distributed to operational SAR services gency beacon failures as a result of damage and false alarms during the proof-of-concept phase, but will be transmitted and develops new classes of beacons. One is a self-locating during the demonstration and evaluation phase so that an beacon with a built in GPS receiver. Another is a portable prototype personal locator beacon.27 assessment of DASS’s operational capabilities can be per- formed.16 NASA also performs R&D on beaconless SAR, includ- If resources allow, an assessment of system performance ing using synthetic aperture side-looking radars on search aircraft28 and also using laser systems on search aircraft to when using data combined from MEOSAR, LEOSAR, and GEOSAR systems will also be accomplished.17 The pro- transmit and receive signals that enable discrimination be- gram achieved a significant cost savings by making slight tween background objects and reflections from inexpensive reflective tape on the person or vehicle in distress.29 modifications to existing DOE payloads and using them as SAR instruments.18 There are six of these modified GPS IIR GSFC is expecting to release a POC test plan in April satellites in orbit.19 2006 to define the criteria for completing the POC, includ- The operational DASS will function as a secondary mis- ing testing requirements and requirements for internal and sion aboard GPS III satellites and, when fully deployed, will external review. The DASS POC will be complete when the consist of 24 to 27 MEO payloads with no less than four goals in the POC test plan have been achieved. DASS payloads visible from anywhere on Earth at any time. The DASS system will be completely compatible with C-S ASSESSMENT distress beacons. It will receive, decode, and locate distress beacons throughout the world and will support near-instan- Progress Toward Achieving Program Plan taneous distress alerting.20 The operational DASS satellite payload will continue to function as a transparent repeater The DASS implementation plan is the overarching in-

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47 SEARCH AND RESCUE teragency program plan for DASS.30 Developed by the GPS III design requirements, and performance requirements for the LUTs.37 DMWG, which is chaired by NASA, the implementation plan clearly sets forth each agency’s roles, responsibilities, The DASS IP indicates that the international MEOSAR milestones, requirements, metrics for requirements satisfac- programs, particularly Galileo, are proceeding years ahead tion, funding, international participation, how international of the DASS schedule. This provides the potential for the MEOSAR programs work with DASS and C-S, and the vi- United States to be able to use SAR/Galileo transmissions to sion for the future of SAR implementation. At meetings of conduct POC and D&E activities on a system-wide basis before GPS Block III satellites are launched.38 If Galileo the DMWG, each participating agency provides a report of its DASS implementation status and a schedule of its planned proceeds as initially planned, a major DASS cost avoidance activities. Other meetings and technical reviews concerning could result. However, NOAA representatives were skepti- DASS design and performance capabilities will be sched- cal that this benefit would materialize, given early indica- uled as needed.31 The DMWG assigns action items to each tions that Galileo funding decisions could greatly reduce the stakeholder and these are documented in the implementation number of SAR payloads included in the constellation. They plan, which is updated after each DMWG meeting. A review also expressed concern that the United States would have no of these action items reveals that there are no critical near- control over the testing of SAR/Galileo, which could very term issues and that participating agencies are working on well be outsourced to a nation less well versed than the ma- jor nations contributing to the core navigation program.39 issues well in advance of the date for program implementa- tion.32 In addition, the document contains multiyear funding The committee observed, too, that the United States may not profiles for each agency. want to rely solely on a non-U.S. system for SAR function- ality. Finding: The committee’s review of the action items from the DASS Management Working Group (DMWG) meetings Finding: The DASS implementation plan allows NASA to indicates that the DMWG believes that the program has pro- take maximum advantage of work that is being done by part- ceeded as planned and that NASA has allocated the appro- ner agencies (e.g., Air Force satellites, DOE payload) and priate personnel, facilities, and funds and is progressing to- international C-S partners (e.g., Russian and European ward completing the DASS proof of concept without any MEOSAR constellations). In addition, the DASS program major issue. architecture retains much of the existing C-S ground seg- ment, all the international interfaces to the C-S system, and Successful completion of the POC phase will initiate the POC ground segment developed by NASA. the transition to the D&E phase. D&E builds on work com- pleted during the POC. NOAA will assume program man- Methodology agement responsibility for DASS implementation at the con- clusion of the POC phase and will guide the system transition The DASS implementation plan is a detailed inter- through D&E to an operational status.33 The current plan is agency program plan that describes the implementation of for NASA to provide funding as necessary for the prototype agency responsibilities as outlined in the document Memo- ground station to support the D&E test activities and for ana- randum of Agreement between NASA, NOAA, USAF, USCG, lytical support of the technical test results. Plans also call for and DOE Regarding the Development and Demonstration of NASA to continue its evaluation of the prototype ground the Global Positioning System-Based Distress Alerting Sat- station to refine the requirements and specifications for op- ellite System, dated February 2003. The agreement sets forth erational MEOLUTs.34 The Air Force will continue to the roles and responsibilities of the participating agencies launch GPS IIR and IIF satellites with DASS payloads.35 during the development and demonstration phases of the DASS program implementation.40 The DMWG provides D&E will evaluate the operational effectiveness of DASS and provide the basis for a recommendation on its interagency planning and direction during the development, operational use in order to ensure that national and interna- proof-of-concept, and demonstration and evaluation of tional organizations accept DASS as an alerting source. Dur- DASS. It is chaired by NASA through the POC phase and ing this phase all minimum DASS performance parameters NOAA during D&E. Participants meet quarterly, as neces- required for compatibility with C-S will be evaluated, with sary, to coordinate requirements, long-range planning, and acquisition strategies.41 the possible exception of global coverage. Sufficient space and ground segment capability will be required to adequately characterize the system and to confirm its benefits.36 Proof Finding: The U.S. agency participants in the DASS program of success is measured against the set of international and meet regularly under the umbrella of the DASS Management national documents that are the source of program require- Working Group and clearly agree on roles and responsibili- ments. These documents define the C-S interfaces and imple- ties for the DASS proof-of-concept development. The DMWG mentation plan, the SARSAT operational requirements, re- is chaired by NASA, the lead development agency. quired DASS capabilities, the interfaces to GPS III, other

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48 REVIEW OF THE SPACE COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM A successful DASS POC is a key step leading to even- matic issue in the upcoming budget cycle and expects to tual incorporation of DASS into the international C-S archi- review alternatives, including rephasing the program to tecture. The DASS program places particular emphasis on match the GPS III schedule, reducing NASA funding to slow correct processing of rescue signals. That function is per- the pace, or obtaining additional funding from other agen- cies.48,49 formed in the ground segment. SAR is an operational life- saving system, and so the agencies have embarked on a well- defined risk reduction program for DASS POC ground Finding: NASA has exceeded its agreed-to budget for DASS. segment activities.42 Two support contractors in the United Considerably more funds are needed to complete the proof- States are capable of performing POC ground segment de- of-concept phase, and this additional budget may not be sup- velopment activities. NASA selected one of these as its sup- ported by NASA headquarters. If the FY 2008 budget cycle port contractor. NOAA selected the other to verify and vali- results in changes in NASA program funding, it is uncertain date the work of the NASA development contractor, whether the DASS proof of concept can be completed in a providing risk mitigation for a critical system element.43 form that reflects the plans and agency agreements the com- Upon successful completion of D&E, the DASS pro- mittee reviewed in this study. The impacts on the plans of gram will transition to an operational system funded and participating agencies are also not known. managed by the agencies responsible for search and rescue operations and C-S administration, functions for which SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS NOAA is the lead U.S. agency today. At that time a new MOA that governs the management of the operational DASS NASA has performed well as the lead agency for search will be required.44 and rescue R&D and will continue in that role until the completion of the DASS POC. NASA has successfully planned and managed the multiagency SAR development Overall Capabilities programs and has integrated the POC DASS system with the The committee’s interviews were very positive with the existing COSPAS-SARSAT, an international program that lead U.S. SAR agency, NOAA, at the Suitland facility re- has performed a daily critical mission since it was declared garding the quality of NASA’s participation in search and operational in 1985. The programs have achieved cost and rescue R&D.45 NOAA’s representatives stated that NASA schedule leverage by piggybacking on existing systems and is meeting requirements, has been a good shepherd of search avoiding unnecessary development and risk. Even the and rescue R&D efforts since program inception, and has completion of the future parts of the SAR program will con- identified no budget issues. tinue to depend on this leveraging of systems funded by other The committee observed that GSFC personnel, equip- U.S. agencies and international partners ment, and facilities are appropriate to the DASS POC task Unfortunately, the DASS program has significantly and that support contractors are used efficiently to fill gaps overrun its allocated funding. Although the program has been in NASA capabilities without duplication. well supported by NASA and contractor personnel, a restruc- An interview with the GPS Joint Program Office re- turing of the DASS POC is likely during the upcoming bud- vealed that the Air Force is not participating in the DASS get cycle. ground system development. The Air Force role in the POC DASS is as the space segment host for the DASS payload. Recommendation: As chair of the DASS Management Work- That work is essentially complete, and all block IIR/IIF sat- ing Group, NASA should assemble the interagency partici- ellites will be equipped with the R&D DASS configuration pants in the DASS proof of concept, review the program’s to support NASA’s DASS POC testing. The Air Force plans progress toward meeting technical, operational, and pro- to procure GPS III in blocks, and based on the current state grammatic requirements, review interagency and interna- of requirements validation within the Air Force, DASS might tional commitments, and negotiate a plan for the future of not be included on the first block of GPS III satellites unless DASS. there is strong advocacy by the civil agencies participating in the program.46 NOTES In preparing its FY 2008 budget, NASA headquarters is 1. COSPAS (Cosmicheskaya Sistyema Poiska Avariynich now assuming that the DASS POC phase will be complete in Sudov), Space System for the Search of Vessels in Distress; FY 2007 and will no longer be funded in FY 2008.47 Con- SARSAT, Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking. versations with NASA headquarters, and confirmation by e- 2. International COSPAS-SARSAT Programme Agreement mail, indicate that the DASS POC has accomplished the vast [ICSPA] between the United States, Canada, the Union of Soviet majority of its objectives but has already exceeded its origi- Socialist Republics, and the Republic of France, Paris, France, July nal $20 million agreed-to budget by $3.5 million, with an 1, 1988. estimated cost to complete of $11.5 million. NASA head- 3. Memorandum of Understanding among the National Oce- quarters is prepared to make DASS a budget and program- anic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Coast Guard,

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49 SEARCH AND RESCUE United States Air Force, and the National Aeronautics and Space spheric Administration, the United States Air Force including the Administration Regarding U.S. Responsibilities for the COSPAS- Space and Air Combat Commands, the United States Coast Guard, SARSAT System, Issue 1, Revision 1, January 1998, p. 2. and the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Adminis- 4. NASA, United States National Search and Rescue Supple- tration Regarding the Development and Demonstration of the Glo- ment to the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and bal Positioning System-Based Distress Alerting Satellite System Rescue Manual, National Search and Rescue Committee, including (DASS), February 2, 2003, pp. 3-4. Appendix A, the National Search and Rescue Plan—1999 [NSP], 20. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting Washington, D.C., May 2000, p. 2-1. Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January 5. NASA, United States National Search and Rescue Com- 12, 2006, p. 2-1. mittee [NSARC] Agreement among the Department of Transporta- 21. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting tion, Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, Depart- Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January ment of Interior, Federal Communications Commission, and the 12, 2006, p. 2-4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, March 3, 1999, 22. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting paragraph 4. Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January 6. NASA, United States National Search and Rescue Supple- 12, 2006, p. 2-4. ment to the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and 23. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting Rescue Manual, National Search and Rescue Committee, including Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January Appendix A, the National Search and Rescue Plan—1999 [NSP], 12, 2006, p. 4-4. Washington, D.C., May 2000, pp. A-2–A-3. 24. Memorandum of Understanding among the National Oce- 7. Memorandum of Agreement between the National Aero- anic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Coast Guard, nautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmo- United States Air Force, and the National Aeronautics and Space spheric Administration, the United States Air Force including the Administration Regarding U.S. Responsibilities for the COSPAS- Space and Air Combat Commands, the United States Coast Guard, SARSAT System, Issue 1, Revision 1, January 1998. and the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Adminis- 25. Memorandum of Agreement between the National Aero- tration Regarding the Development and Demonstration of the Glo- nautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmo- bal Positioning System-Based Distress Alerting Satellite System spheric Administration, the United States Air Force including the (DASS), February 2, 2003, p. 3. Space and Air Combat Commands, the United States Coast Guard, 8. COSPAS-SARSAT, International Satellite System for and the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Adminis- Search and Rescue, available at http://www.cospas-sarsat.org/De- tration Regarding the Development and Demonstration of the Glo- scription/concept.htm. bal Positioning System-Based Distress Alerting Satellite System 9. COSPAS-SARSAT, International Satellite System for (DASS), February 2, 2003, pp. 6-7. Search and Rescue, available at http://www.cospas-sarsat.org/De- 26. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue scription/concept.htm. Mission Office, Search and Rescue Laboratory (SARLab), avail- 10. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue able at http://searchandrescue.gsfc.nasa.gov/sedl/sarlab.htm. Mission Office, Distress Alerting Satellite System (DASS), avail- 27. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue able at http://searchandrescue.gsfc.nasa.gov/dass/index.htm. Mission Office, Emergency Beacon Development Web Page, 11. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting available at http://searchandrescue.gsfc.nasa.gov/techdevelop Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January ment/beacons.htm. 12, 2006, pp. 1-2–1-3. 28. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue 12. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue Mission Office Search and Rescue Synthetic Aperture Radar Mission Office, Distress Alerting Satellite System (DASS), avail- (SAR2), available at http://searchandrescue.gsfc.nasa.gov/tech able at http://searchandrescue.gsfc.nasa.gov/dass/index.htm. development/sar2.htm. 13. Kelly, John D., NASA SOMD, personal communication, 29. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue April 19, 2006. Mission Office Laser Search and Rescue (L-SAR), available at 14. Reaser, Colonel Richard, GPS Deputy Joint Program Di- http://searchandrescue.gsfc.nasa.gov/techdevelopment/l_sar.htm. rector, personal communication, April 19, 2006. 30. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting 15. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January Mission Office, Distress Alerting Satellite System (DASS), avail- 12, 2006. able at http://searchandrescue.gsfc.nasa.gov/dass/index.htm. 31. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting 16. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January 12, 2006, p. 4-5. 12, 2006, p. 2-5. 32. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting 17. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January 12, 2006. 12, 2006, pp. 7-3–7-4. 33. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting 18. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January Mission Office, Distress Alerting Satellite System (DASS), avail- 12, 2006, p. 4-3. able at http://searchandrescue.gsfc.nasa.gov/dass/index.htm. 34. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting 19. Memorandum of Agreement between the National Aero- Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January nautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmo- 12, 2006, p. 7-9.

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50 REVIEW OF THE SPACE COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM 35. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting 43. Button, Tom, and Ajay Mehta, SARSAT Program Man- Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January ager, meeting with NOAA, March 30, 2006. 12, 2006 p. 2-4. 44. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting 36. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January 12, 2006, p. 4-5. 12, 2006, p. 7-6. 45. Button, Tom, and Ajay Mehta, meeting with NOAA, 37. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting Suitland, Md., March 30, 2006. Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January 46. Reaser, Coloniel Richard, GPS Deputy Joint Program Di- 12, 2006, pp. 3-4–3-5. rector, personal communication, April 19, 2006. 38. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting 47. Kelly, John D., NASA SOMD, personal communication, Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January April 13, 2006. 12, 2006, p. 7-13 48. Kelly, John D., NASA SOMD, personal communication, 39. Button, Tom, and A.J. Mehta, meeting with NOAA, March April 11, 2006. 30, 2006. 49. According to the International COSPAS-SARSAT 40. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting Programme Agreement (ICSPA), p. 5, Article 6, Financial Matters, Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January “Each party, in conformity with its domestic funding procedures, 12, 2006, p. 1-1. and subject to the availability of appropriated funds, shall be fully 41. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting responsible for financing all costs associated with its contribution Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January to the Space Segment as determined pursuant to Article 5, and the 12, 2006, p. 4-5. common costs arising from the obligations of this Agreement.” 42. DASS Management Working Group, Distress Alerting Satellite System Implementation Plan [DASS IP], Issue 1, January 12, 2006, pp. 6-2–6-5.