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Committee to Review NASA’s Space Communications Program Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. NASW-03009 between the National Academy of Sci- ences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10297-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10297-9 Available in limited supply from the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-2858. Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, www.nap.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and tech- nology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its admin- istration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the respon- sibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engi- neering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engi- neering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initia- tive, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associ- ate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowl- edge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE TO REVIEW NASA’S SPACE COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM ROBERT E. DEEMER, Chair, Regis University School of Professional Studies, Denver, Colorado HARVEY BERGER, Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, California THOMAS C. BETTERTON, United States Navy (retired), Warrenton, Virginia ANTONIO L. ELIAS (NAE), Orbital Sciences Corporation, Dulles, Virginia CHARLES T. FORCE, NASA (retired), Loogootee, Indiana KEITH JARETT, Boeing Space and Intelligence Systems, Lafayette, California MARJORY JOHNSON, RIACS/NASA (retired), Ashland, Missouri YOGI Y. KRIKORIAN, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, California THOMAS MAULTSBY, Rubicon, LLC, Burke, Virginia TODD J. MOSHER, Microsat Systems, Incorporated, Littleton, Colorado PATRICK A. STADTER, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland PAUL G. STEFFES, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta MICHAEL W. TOMPKINS, KDM Systems, Centreville, Virginia WILBUR TRAFTON, Will Trafton & Associates, Coronado, California BARRY M. ZILIN, Practical Innovations International, Woodbridge, Virginia Staff SANDRA GRAHAM, Study Director (from December 2005) ALAN ANGLEMAN, Study Director (through November 2005) HEIDI MURRAY, Senior Program Assistant ANNA FARRAR, Financial Associate GEORGE LEVIN, Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board iv

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AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD RAYMOND S. COLLADAY, Chair, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired), Golden, Colorado WILLIAM L. BALLHAUS, BAE Systems National Security Solutions, Reston, Virginia CHARLES F. BOLDEN, JR., Jack and Panther, LLC, Houston, Texas EDWARD M. BOLEN, National Aviation Association, Washington, D.C. ANTHONY J. BRODERICK, Aviation Safety Consultant, Catlett, Virginia JOHN-PAUL CLARKE, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta PHILIP M. CONDIT (NAE), The Boeing Company, Redmond, Washington ROBERT L. CRIPPEN, Thiokol Propulsion (retired), Palm Beach Gardens, Florida RICHARD M. GOODY (NAS), Harvard University (emeritus), Falmouth, Massachusetts PRESTON HENNE (NAE), Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia WILLIAM W. HOOVER, U.S. Air Force (retired), Williamsburg, Virginia SYDNEY MICHAEL HUDSON, Rolls-Royce North America (retired), Indianapolis, Indiana JOHN M. KLINEBERG, Space Systems/Loral (retired), Redwood City, California ILAN KROO (NAE), Stanford University, Stanford, California MOLLY K. MACAULEY, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. FORREST S. McCARTNEY, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired), Indian Harbour Beach, Florida ELON MUSK, Space Exploration Development Corporation–SpaceX, El Segundo, California AMY PRITCHETT, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ROBERT R. RANKINE, JR., Hughes Space and Communications Company (retired), Clearwater, Florida DEBRA L. RUB-ZENKO, The Boeing Company, Anaheim, California CYNTHIA SAMUELSON, Logistics Management Institute, McLean, Virginia PETER STAUDHAMMER (NAE), University of Southern California, La Quinta HANSEL E. TOOKES II, Raytheon International, Inc. (retired), Palm Beach Gardens, Florida RAY VALEIKA, Delta Airlines, Inc. (retired), Powder Springs, Georgia ROBERT S. WALKER, Wexler & Walker Public Policy Associates, Washington, D.C. ROBERT E. WHITEHEAD, National Institute of Aerospace, Henrico, North Carolina THOMAS L. WILLIAMS, Northrop Grumman, El Segundo, California Staff GEORGE LEVIN, Director v

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vii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspec- tives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectiv- ity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Sandy Bates, Topside Consulting, LLC, Don Hard, Hard Enterprise, Julie Miller, Lockheed Martin, and Eytan Modiano, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Joseph Rothenberg, Universal Space Network. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and sug- gestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Donald L. Cromer, United States Air Force (retired). Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. vii

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 Background and General Overview, 7 Elements of SOMD’s Space Communications Program, 7 Operational Networks, 8 Other Program Elements, 8 Study Approach and Organization, 9 Approach to the Assessment, 10 Organization of This Report, 11 Notes, 11 Assessment of Operational Networks 2 SPACE NETWORK PROGRAM ELEMENT ASSESSMENT 15 Introduction, 15 Assessment, 16 Formulation of the Project Plan, 16 Project Objectives, 16 Project Deliverables, 16 Expected Services, 17 Long-Term Project Goals and Objectives, 19 Connections to the Broader Community, 20 Department of Defense, 20 National Science Foundation, 20 Utilization of Commercial Space Systems, 21 Methodology, 21 Project Plan Completeness, 21 Risk Management, 21 Overall Capabilities, 22 Quality of Work Performed, 22 Adequacy of Resources, 22 Notes, 22 ix

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x CONTENTS 3 NASA INTEGRATED SERVICES NETWORK 23 Introduction, 23 NISN Goals, 23 NISN Services, 23 NISN Customers, 24 Assessment, 24 Formulation of the Project Plan, 24 Project Objectives, 24 Project Deliverables, 24 Performance Metrics, 25 Review Mechanisms, 25 Connections to the Broader Community, 25 Methodology, 26 Overall Capabilities, 26 Notes, 28 Assessment of Other Program Elements 4 SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT 31 Introduction, 31 Spectrum Management Organization, 31 Headquarters Spectrum Management Forum, 32 NASA Spectrum Management Group, 32 Field Centers, 32 Budget, 33 Assessment, 33 Formulation of the Program Plan, 33 Connection to the Broader Community, 33 Methodology, 34 Overall Capabilities, 35 Notes, 36 5 DATA STANDARDS MANAGEMENT 38 Introduction, 38 Assessment, 39 Formulation of the Program Plan, 39 Connections to the Broader Community, 39 Methodology, 40 Resources and Funding, 40 Overall Capabilities, 44 Notes, 44 6 SEARCH AND RESCUE 45 Introduction, 45 Assessment, 46 Progress Toward Achieving Program Plan, 46 Methodology, 47 Overall Capabilities, 48 Summary and Conclusions, 48 Notes, 48 7 COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION ARCHITECTURE 51 Introduction, 51 Assessment, 51 Formulation of the Program Plan, 51 Project Objectives, 51

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xi CONTENTS Project Deliverables, 52 Expected Services, 53 Long-Term Project Goals and Objectives, 55 Connections to the Broader Community, 55 Department of Defense, 55 Other Space Agencies, 55 Notes, 55 8 TECHNOLOGY 56 Introduction, 56 Assessment, 56 Formulation of the Program Plan, 58 Connections to the Broader Community, 60 Methodology, 60 Concluding Comments, 61 Notes, 61 9 OPERATIONS INTEGRATION PROGRAM ELEMENT 62 Introduction, 62 Formulation of the Program Plan, 62 Contractor Oversight Activities, 62 Coordinator and Planning Activities, 63 Requirements Management Activities, 63 Readiness Assurance Activities, 63 Development Activities, 64 Related Assessment, 65 Connections to the Broader Community, 66 Methodology, 66 Overall Capabilities, 66 Findings, 66 Reliance on Individuals’ Skills and Expertise, 66 Complex Reporting Structure, 66 Outstanding Level of Customer Satisfaction Achieved, 67 Notes, 67 General Issues 10 OVERARCHING ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS 71 Limits of Review, 71 Centralized Space Communications Management Within NASA Headquarters, 71 Centralized Space Communications Contracting, 72 TDRSS Replenishment and Long-Term Communications Requirements, 72 Requirements Validation Process, 72 NASA Workforce, 73 Program Plan, 73 APPENDIXES1 A Statement of Task 77 B Committee Member Biographies 79 C Acronyms 84 1An appendix that appeared in the prepublication version of this report is not included here but is available in the public access files at the Academies.

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This report is dedicated to the memory of Major General Jimmey R. Morrell (1946-2006) xii