tional ideas and implementation models to help food service managers increase students’ fruit and vegetable consumption (PBH, 2005a,b). A recent CDC and USDA publication, Making It Happen: School Nutrition Success Stories, documents some of those changes. Examples include efforts made in Ennis, Montana, where students were involved from the initial planning in 2002–2003 in restocking vending machines and removing brand logos from vending machine signage. The vending services for the Oceanside, California school district were placed under the auspices of the food services program; and the results included healthier options and increased revenue from vending sales for the high school. In McComb, Mississippi, school policies were changed so that fundraising through the sale of candy or other less nutritious food items is not permitted in kindergarten through the eighth grade (USDA, DHHS, and DoE, 2005).

Federal, state, and community programs are increasingly focused on improving the nutritional quality of school foods and beverages—those offered as part of the NSLP and SBP, as well as those sold competitively. As discussed in Chapter 4, USDA’s Team Nutrition program provides technical assistance to school food service personnel and child-care professionals, including Fruit and Vegetables Galore, a tool to assist schools in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption (USDA, 2006c). Additionally, innovative approaches to increase fruit and vegetable availability and consumption are being implemented by students, teachers, food service personnel, and the community through farm-to-school programs and school gardens (Graham and Zidenberg-Cherr, 2005; USDA, 2005). The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), in partnership with USDA, conducts the DoD Fresh program, which in the 2005–2006 school year distributed produce to school foodservice programs in 46 states and more than 100 American Indian reservations (Chapter 4) (David Leggett, USDA, personal communication, July 13, 2006; USDA, 2006a).

Fresh fruits, dried fruits, and fresh vegetables are also being made available to students outside the regular school meal periods through USDA’s Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP). Established as a pilot program in the 2002–2003 school year, the program aims to increase student consumption of fruits and vegetables by increasing the availability of these foods in the school environment (Chapter 4). In 2004, the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act (Public Law 108-265) established FFVP as a permanent program and expanded the program from four to eight states and added additional American Indian reservations (UFFVA, 2006); subsequent appropriations legislation in 2006 expanded the program to 14 states, and additional funding for a nationwide program is being sought. FFVP has undergone a preliminary evaluation, and further evaluation efforts are under way (Buzby et al., 2003) (Appendix D). For example, an evaluation of 25 schools in Mississippi that participated in the



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