Impact Evaluation A measure of whether or not an outcome, such as the effectiveness of a program, is the result of an intervention. To draw a cause-and-effect conclusion, an impact evaluation incorporates research methods that eliminate alternative explanations for an outcome and shows how much difference an intervention can make compared with the effect seen when no intervention is used. In public health programs, an impact evaluation often occurs over a long period of time.
Incidence The frequency of new cases of a condition or disease within a defined time period. Incidence is commonly measured in new cases per 1,000 (or 100,000) population at risk per year.
Indicators Aggregates of raw and processed data that are used to measure social, economic, and health outcomes such as unemployment rates, gross national product, obesity rates, morbidity, and life expectancy. Indices are aggregated measures of several indicators and are used to describe the performance of an institution or sector.
Inputs The type and level of resources required—such as people, time, and money—to support, implement, and sustain program activities.
Institutional Outcomes Changes in organizational cultures, norms, policies, and procedures related to dietary patterns and physical activity behaviors. An example of an institutional outcome is the development or expansion of a company’s employee wellness program to incorporate obesity prevention into its activities.
Integrated Marketing A planning process designed to ensure that all promotional activities, including media advertising, direct mail, sales promotion, and public relations, produce a unified, customer-focused promotion message that is relevant to a customer and that is consistent over time.
Intervention A policy, program, or action intended to bring about identifiable outcomes.
Land Use The way in which land is used, including for residential, commercial, industrial, or mixed-use development or for the preservation of open spaces, including parks and agricultural land.
Leisure Screen Time The total amount of time spent using electronic media during one’s free time. It includes exposure to television, DVDs, videos, videogames, movies, and computers.