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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? I Biographical Sketches Jeffrey P. Koplan, M.D., M.P.H. (Chair), is the Vice President for Academic Health Affairs at the Woodruff Health Sciences Center at Emory University in Atlanta. He received a B.A. from Yale College, an M.D. from the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, and an M.P.H. from the Harvard School of Public Health. He is board certified in internal and preventive medicine. From 1998 to 2002, Dr. Koplan served as the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He worked in the area of enhancing the interactions between clinical medicine and public health by leading the Prudential Center for Health Care Research, a nationally recognized health services research organization. Dr. Koplan has worked on a broad range of major public health issues, including infectious diseases, such as smallpox and HIV/AIDS; environmental issues, such as the chemical disaster in Bhopal, India; and the health toll of tobacco and chronic diseases, both in the United States and globally. Dr. Koplan is a Master of the American College of Physicians, an Honorary Fellow of the Society of Public Health Educators, and a Public Health Hero of the American Public Health Association. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1999 and he serves on the Governing Council. He has served on many advisory groups and consultancies on public health issues in the United States and overseas and has authored more than 190 scientific papers. Ross C. Brownson, Ph.D., is Professor of Epidemiology at St. Louis University School of Public Health in Missouri. He was formerly Division Director at the Missouri Department of Health. He received a Ph.D. in environmen-
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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? tal health and epidemiology at Colorado State University. Dr. Brownson is a chronic disease epidemiologist whose research has focused on tobacco use prevention, the promotion of physical activity, obesity prevention, and the evaluation of community-level interventions. He is the principal investigator of a CDC-funded Prevention Research Center that is developing innovative approaches to chronic disease prevention among high-risk rural adults. Dr. Brownson is also developing and testing effective dissemination strategies for CDC designed to increase the rates of physical activity among children and adults. Dr. Brownson receives research support from the National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) to conduct a diabetes prevention study aimed at promoting walking among high-risk adults in rural areas. Dr. Brownson receives support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) to understand the environmental characteristics of activity-friendly communities through RWJF’s Active Living Research program. He is a member of numerous editorial boards and is associate editor of the Annual Review of Public Health. Dr. Brownson is the author or editor of several books including Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control, Applied Epidemiology, and Evidence-Based Public Health. Ann Bullock, M.D., is Medical Director of the Health and Medical Division for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in Cherokee, North Carolina. She has been an Indian Health Service (IHS) physician in the Cherokee community since 1990 and became Medical Director for the tribe in 2000. Dr. Bullock is responsible for the development and supervision of medical aspects of Cherokee tribal health programs, with particular responsibility for the tribe’s diabetes prevention and treatment programs, funded through CDC REACH 2010 and IHS Special Diabetes Program for Indians grants, respectively. She serves as an advisor to the IHS Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention and has been involved in numerous national-level diabetes initiatives among Indian tribes. Dr. Bullock received the IHS Director’s Award for helping to improve the care of diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. She lectures extensively on the physiological and behavioral connections between stress and risk for diabetes. Dr. Bullock received an A.B. degree from Brown University and an M.D. from the University of Washington and completed a residency in family medicine at the University of Minnesota. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Family Physicians and a member of the Association of American Indian Physicians. Dr. Bullock is an enrolled member of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe. Susan B. Foerster, M.P.H., R.D., leads the Cancer Prevention and Nutrition Section of the California Department of Health Services, home of the signa-
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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? ture California 5 a Day—for Better Health! Campaign and the California Nutrition Network for Healthy, Active Families. The social marketing campaigns work through public-private partnerships; feature special campaigns for children and African-American and Latino parents; and work through a dozen community channels to increase fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and food security. They serve California’s estimated 7 million low-income parents and children who qualify for Food Stamp nutrition education because their annual household income falls below 185 percent of the federal poverty level. Their goals are to help reverse the statewide epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes among lower-income Californians and, over the longer term, to help eliminate related health disparities and prevent multiple other chronic diseases. The campaigns provide a statewide, regional, and local-level infrastructure of 180 projects working in nearly 4,000 locations to help residents change social norms and create conditions that enable healthier behavior in low-income communities. Ms. Foerster received a B.S. in dietetics and an M.P.H. in nutrition from the University of California, Berkeley. She has published widely on public health approaches to dietary improvement for cancer prevention. She serves on the national steering committees for the National 5 a Day Program and the National Alliance for Nutrition and Activity, serves on the Action Board of the American Public Health Association, and helped cofound the Association of State Nutrition Network Administrators. In California she is the public member for the California Table Grape Commission, is a board member of the American Cancer Society, California Division, and is on the Executive Committee of the California Dialog on Cancer. Honors include Alumnus of the Year from the University of California at Berkeley School of Public Health; awards for excellence in practice from the nation’s Chronic Disease Directors, the American Dietetic Association, and the American Public Health Association; designation as a Healthy School Hero from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS); and multiple recognitions from the National Cancer Institute and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Jennifer Greene, Ph.D., is Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign (UIUC). Dr. Greene’s research interests focus on the intersection of social science and social policy, particularly the domain of educational and social program evaluation. Her work seeks to advance the theory and practice of alternative forms of evaluation including qualitative, participatory, and mixed-method evaluation approaches. Dr. Greene’s current research emphasizes evaluation as a venue for democratizing dialogue about critical social and education issues. Dr. Greene has evaluated service learning projects in higher education and action research projects in community settings, including Campus Compact
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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? and projects for the Kellogg Foundation and the Commission on National and Community Service, remedial and curriculum reform education projects in schools from kindergarten through grade 12 for the U.S. Department of Education and the Ford Foundation, public policy and natural resource leadership development for the Kellogg Foundation, and projects of youth development and intergenerational storytelling. She is the principal investigator for the National Science Foundation to pursue a “value-engaged” approach to evaluating science and mathematics education programs. Dr. Greene received a B.A. in psychology from Wellesley College, an M.A. in education from Stanford University, and a Ph.D. in educational psychology from Stanford University. From 1983 to 1999, she held previous academic appointments as Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and Professor in the Department of Policy Analysis and Management at Cornell University; and from 1977 to 1983, she was an Assistant Professor and Associate Professor in the Department of Education at the University of Rhode Island. Dr. Greene has published widely in journals and books on program evaluation. She has held leadership positions in the American Education Research Association and the American Evaluation Association and was recently co-editor-in-chief of New Directions for Evaluation. In 2003, Dr. Greene received the Distinguished Senior Scholar Award from the UIUC College of Education and the Paul F. Lazarsfeld Award from the American Evaluation Association for contributions to evaluation theory. Douglas B. Kamerow, M.D., M.P.H., is a Chief Scientist for Health, Social, and Economics Research at RTI International, where he focuses on health-related behaviors, evidence-based care, and quality of health care improvement. Among his responsibilities is serving as principal investigator on an evaluation of RWJF’s national diabetes program. He is also U.S. editor of the BMJ and a Professor of Clinical Family Medicine at Georgetown University. A family physician who is board-certified in preventive medicine as well, Dr. Kamerow received an A.B. from Harvard College, an M.D. from the University of Rochester, and an M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University. A former Assistant Surgeon General in the U.S. Public Health Service, he served as Director of the Center for Practice and Technology Assessment, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in DHHS, and as Director of the Clinical Preventive Services Staff of the U.S. Public Health Service of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. He conceived and supervised the creation of the Evidence-Based Practice Centers Program and the National Guideline Clearinghouse; was managing editor of the first and second editions of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Guide to Clinical Preventive Services; and led the development of the Put Prevention into Practice campaign, which sought to incorporate clinical preventive services, including nutrition counseling, into routine medical practice.
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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Marshall Kreuter, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Public Health Institute at Georgia State University in Atlanta. His primary interests are in the areas of strategic planning, implementation, evaluation of community-based public health programs, and the assessment of the relationship between social capital and community-based health improvement initiatives. In 2000, Dr. Kreuter retired as a Distinguished Scientist/Fellow at CDC in Atlanta, where he served in several key leadership roles: Director of the Division of Health Education, the first director of the Division of Chronic Disease Control and Community Intervention, and Director of the Prevention Research Centers program. While at CDC, Dr. Kreuter and colleagues refined the epidemiologic study of physical activity, initiated research and programs focused on the early detection of breast cancer, developed a stronger emphasis on school health, and created the Planned Approach to Community Health program. Dr. Kreuter received a Ph.D. from the University of Utah, completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, and was awarded an honorary master of public health degree from the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria in Spain. He has authored several books and papers on health promotion and is the recipient of numerous awards, among them the John P. McGovern Medal for distinguished contributions to health education and the Distinguished Fellow Award, the highest honor awarded by the Society for Public Health Education. Russell R. Pate, Ph.D., is a Professor of Exercise Science in the Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina in Columbia. He received a B.S. in physical education from Springfield College, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in exercise physiology from the University of Oregon. Dr. Pate’s research interest and expertise focus on physical activity measurement, determinants, and promotion in children and youth. He also directs a national postgraduate course aimed at developing research competencies related to physical activity and public health. Dr. Pate is also involved in the CDC-funded Prevention Research Center at the University of South Carolina. His research includes studies on preschoolers’ physical activity levels and how schools can influence these levels and multicenter trials on the promotion of physical activity among middle and high school-age girls. Dr. Pate serves on the Kraft Food Global Health and Wellness Advisory Council and is a Past-President of both the American College of Sports Medicine and the National Coalition on Promoting Physical Activity. John C. Peters, Ph.D., is Associate Director of Food and Beverage Technology and Director of the Nutrition Science Institute at Procter & Gamble Company in Cincinnati. He received a B.S. in biochemistry from the University of California at Davis and a Ph.D. in biochemistry and nutrition
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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? from the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Dr. Peters’ research has focused on dietary factors in the control of food intake; dietary and exercise effects on nutrient partitioning; energy metabolism and obesity; and the effects of fat replacements on energy, fat intake, and micronutrient metabolism. He has served on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Arkansas Children’s Hospital Research Institute, on the planning committee of the Cincinnati Health Improvement Collaborative, as President of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Center for Health Promotion, and is Chief Executive Officer of the America on the Move Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting healthy eating and active living through public-private partnerships. Kenneth E. Powell, M.D., M.P.H., is the retired Chief of the Chronic Disease, Injury, and Environmental Epidemiology Section at the Georgia Division of Public Health in Atlanta. The relationship between physical activity and health has been an important theme during his career as an epidemiologist. He initiated CDC’s epidemiologic work in the area by consolidating the scientific literature and setting the public health research agenda. He is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians, the American College of Epidemiology, and the American College of Sports Medicine. Thomas N. Robinson, M.D., M.P.H., is an Associate Professor of Pediatrics and of Medicine in the Division of General Pediatrics and Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Robinson received both a B.S. and an M.D. from Stanford University and an M.P.H. in maternal and child health from the University of California at Berkeley. He completed his internship and residency in pediatrics at Children’s Hospital in Boston and Harvard Medical School and then returned to Stanford for postdoctoral training as a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar. Dr. Robinson’s community-, school-, and family-based health behavior change research has focused on nutrition, physical activity, and smoking behaviors in children and adolescents; the effects of television viewing on health-related behaviors; childhood obesity prevention and treatment; and the use of interactive communication technologies to promote health behavior change. Dr. Robinson was a RWJF Generalist Physician Faculty Scholar awardee prior to his participation on the present IOM committee. Dr. Robinson is board certified in pediatrics, is a Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics, and practices general pediatrics and directs the Center for Healthy Weight at the Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford. Eduardo J. Sanchez, M.D., M.P.H., is Director of the Institute of Health Policy at the School of Public Health in the University of Texas Health
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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Science Center in Houston. He is the previous Commissioner of the Texas Department of State Health Services. As Commissioner and Chief Health Officer for the State of Texas, Dr. Sanchez oversaw programs such as mental health and substance abuse prevention and treatment, disease prevention and all-hazards preparedness, family and community health services, environmental and consumer safety and regulatory programs. The Texas Department of State Health Services has more than 11,500 employees located in a Central Office in Austin and eight regional offices and operates on an annual budget of approximately $2.3 billion. Dr. Sanchez is a board-certified family practice physician and actively practiced in Austin, Texas from 1992 to 2001. He also served as Health Authority and Chief Medical Officer for the Austin-Travis County Health and Human Services Department from 1994 to 1998. Dr. Sanchez received an M.D. in 1988 from the Southwestern Medical School in Dallas. He holds an M.P.H. from the University of Texas Health Science Center Houston–School of Public Health, San Antonio Branch, an M.S. in biomedical engineering from Duke University, and a B.S. biomedical engineering and chemistry from Boston University. Antronette (Toni) Yancey, M.D., M.P.H., is currently Associate Professor, Department of Health Services, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Public Health, with primary research interests in chronic disease prevention intervention and adolescent health promotion. Dr. Yancey serves as head of the UCLA School of Public Health departmental Doctorate of Public Health Program. She also serves as the Public Health Practice Coordinator for the school, Co-director of the UCLA Center to Eliminate Health Disparities, and Director of the Center’s Physical Activity Promotion and Obesity Prevention & Control Collaborative. Dr. Yancey returned to academia full-time after 5 years in public health practice. In previous positions, she served as Director of Public Health for the city of Richmond, Virginia, and as Director of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion at the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Dr. Yancey is a nationally recognized leader in chronic disease prevention intervention research and academic public health practice, particularly in efforts that target African-American and Latino communities. She has generated more than $14 million in extramural funds, including two R01 grants as principal investigator from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and has maintained continuous NIH funding since 1990. She chairs the CDC’s Health Disparities Committee, served as a member of the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society grant review committees, served as guest editor for two journal issues/supplements on obesity-related disparities, and recently completed a term as Associate Editor of Health Psychology. In addition to more than 45 peer-reviewed journal
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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? articles, she has published poetry in several newspapers, in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, and in her book of poetry and art, An Old Soul with a Young Spirit: Poetry in the Era of Desegregation Recovery, and has a spoken word music CD, Renaissance Woman/Race Woman. Dr. Yancey completed a B.A. in biochemistry and molecular biology at Northwestern University, an M.D. at Duke University, and a preventive medicine residency and M.P.H. degree at UCLA. Consultants Shiriki K. Kumanyika, Ph.D., M.P.H., R.D., is Professor of Epidemiology in the Departments of Biostatistics and Epidemiology and Pediatrics (Section on Nutrition), Associate Dean for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, and Director of the Graduate Program in Public Health Studies at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Her research relates to cardiovascular diseases, obesity, nutrition epidemiologic methods, and the health of minority populations, with a current emphasis on the prevention of obesity and related health problems in African-American adults and children. Among her extensive service activities, she chaired the National Nutrition Monitoring Advisory Council and served on both the 1995 and 2000 U.S. Dietary Guidelines Committees, the Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels, and the Advisory Council of the NIH’s National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Dr. Kumanyika was also the Vice-Chair of the 2002 World Health Organization (WHO)/Food and Agricultural Organization Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases and Co-Chair of the 2005 WHO Expert Consultation on Childhood Obesity. She currently serves on the Executive Board of the American Public Health Association and the NIH Clinical Obesity Research Panel and Chairs the Prevention Reference Group of the International Obesity Task Force. Dr. Kumanyika has served on several IOM committees, including the Committee on the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth that preceded the Committee on Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity. She was elected to membership in IOM in 2003. Dr. Kumanyika earned an M.S. in social work from Columbia University, a Ph.D. in human nutrition from Cornell University, and a Master of Public Health from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. Donna C. Nichols, M.S.Ed., C.H.E.S., is the Senior Prevention Policy Analyst with the Center for Policy and Innovation at the Texas Department of State Health Services in Austin. In her current position, Ms. Nichols provides strategic direction and policy support to numerous executive-level committees and councils aimed at addressing the state’s most pressing pub-
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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? lic health issues, including obesity prevention and control and works externally to engage public and private partners in improving the health of Texans. As the former Director of Public Health Promotion from 1996 to 2000, Ms. Nichols was responsible for assuring excellence in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health promotion practice, policy, and programming in the state of Texas. Ms. Nichols holds an M.S. in health education from James Madison University and a B.S. in health and physical education from Longwood College; is a certified health education specialist; and has been a public health practitioner for nearly 30 years serving three state health agencies in Virginia, Arkansas, and Texas. She is a Past-President of the Directors of Health Promotion and Education (DHPE) and is currently the DHPE Legislative/Advocacy Chair. She is also the DHPE Co-Chair for the National Physical Activity Collaborative, which supports public health physical activity practitioners across the country. In 2000, Ms. Nichols received the CDC/DHPE Leadership Award. In 1998, she received the CDC/DHPE Health Promotion Medal of Excellence, and in 1997 she received the CDC/DHPE State Coalition Award for Quality in Health Promotion. She is an author, presenter, health promotion practitioner, and researcher and has served on numerous national professional, scientific, technical, and advocacy committees. IOM Staff Vivica I. Kraak, M.S., R.D., is a Senior Program Officer in the Food and Nutrition Board at the IOM. She staffed the congressionally directed IOM studies and reports Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance and Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity?. She also serves as the Study Director for the IOM Workshop on the Adequacy of Evidence for Physical Activity Guidelines Development, sponsored by HHS. Prior to joining the IOM in 2002, she worked as a Clinical Dietitian at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center and a Public Health Nutritionist specializing in HIV disease in New York City. From 1994 to 2000, she was a Research Nutritionist in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University where she collaborated with faculty on several domestic and international food policy and community nutrition research initiatives. She has coauthored a variety of publications related to food security and community food systems, nutrition and HIV/AIDS, international food aid and food security, viewpoints about genetically engineered foods, consumer use of dietary supplements, and the influence of commercialism on the food-and nutrition-related decisions and behaviors of children and youth. Vivica received a B.S. in nutritional sciences from Cornell University and completed a coordinated M.S. in nutrition and dietetic internship at Case Western Reserve University and the University Hospitals of Cleveland. She is a
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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? member of the American Public Health Association and the American Dietetic Association. Catharyn T. Liverman, M.L.S., is a Senior Program Officer in the Food and Nutrition Board and the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the IOM. She served as study director for the congressionally mandated IOM study and subsequent report Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. In 12 years at IOM, she has worked on projects addressing a number of topics, including veterans’ health, drug abuse, injury prevention, and clinical trials of testosterone therapy. The IOM reports that she has co-edited include Testosterone and Aging: Clinical Research Directions; Gulf War and Health, Vol. 1; Reducing the Burden of Injury; Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Resources; and The Development of Medications for the Treatment of Opiate and Cocaine Addiction. Her background is in medical library science, with previous jobs at the National Agricultural Library and the Naval War College Library. She received a B.A. from Wake Forest University and an M.L.S. from the University of Maryland. Linda D. Meyers, Ph.D., is the Director of the Food and Nutrition Board at IOM. She has also served as the Deputy Director and a Senior Program Officer in the board. Prior to joining the IOM in 2001, she worked for 15 years in the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion in HHS where she was a Senior Nutrition Advisor, Deputy Director, and Acting Director. Dr. Meyers has received a number of awards for her contributions to public health, including the Secretary’s Distinguished Service Award for Healthy People 2010 and the Surgeon General’s Medallion. Dr. Meyers has a B.A. in health and physical education from Goshen College in Indiana, an M.S. in food and nutrition from Colorado State University, and a Ph.D. in nutritional sciences from Cornell University. Jon Q. Sanders, B.A., is a Senior Program Assistant with the Food and Nutrition Board at IOM. Since joining the National Academies in 2001, Mr. Sanders has worked on a variety of studies ranging from Everglades restoration to review of the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food packages. Mr. Sanders received a B.A. degree in anthropology from Trinity University and is currently working toward an M.S. degree in environmental sciences and policy at Johns Hopkins University. He is a member of the Society for Applied Anthropology and the American Indian Science and Engineering Society. He is coauthor of Sitting Down at the Table: Mediation and Resolution of Water Conflicts (2001). Mr. Sanders’ research interests include political ecology and environmental decision making.
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Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Shannon L. Wisham, B.A., is a Research Associate in the Food and Nutrition Board at the IOM where she staffed the congressionally directed IOM studies and reports Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance and Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity?. She has also worked on several National Research Council reports, including Partnerships for Reducing Landslide Risk, Fair Weather: Effective Partnerships in Weather and Climate Services, Government Data Centers: Meeting Increasing Demands, Resolving Conflicts Arising from the Privatization of Environmental Data, and Review of EarthScope Integrated Science. She has been with The National Academies since 2001. She holds a B.A. in environmental science from LaSalle University in Philadelphia. Previously, she worked as a researcher for Booz-Allen & Hamilton.
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