NOAA's ROLE IN SPACE-BASED GLOBAL PRECIPITATION ESTIMATION AND APPLICATION

Committee on the Future of Rainfall Measuring Missions

Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Noaa's Role in Space-Based Global Precipitation Estimation and Application NOAA's ROLE IN SPACE-BASED GLOBAL PRECIPITATION ESTIMATION AND APPLICATION Committee on the Future of Rainfall Measuring Missions Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Noaa's Role in Space-Based Global Precipitation Estimation and Application THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under Contract No. DG133R04CQ0009. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10298-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10298-7 Cover image: Artist’s rendition of the NASA-JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement mission core satellite. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Noaa's Role in Space-Based Global Precipitation Estimation and Application THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Noaa's Role in Space-Based Global Precipitation Estimation and Application COMMITTEE ON THE FUTURE OF RAINFALL MEASURING MISSIONS EUGENE M. RASMUSSON (Chair), University of Maryland (retired), College Park NANCY L. BAKER, Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California V. CHANDRASEKAR, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CAROL ANNE CLAYSON, Florida State University, Tallahassee JEFFREY D. HAWKINS, Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California KRISTINA B. KATSAROS, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (retired), Freeland, Washington M. PATRICK MCCORMICK, Hampton University, Virginia MATTHIAS STEINER, Princeton University, New Jersey GRAEME L. STEPHENS, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CHRISTOPHER S. VELDEN, University of Wisconsin, Madison RAY A. WILLIAMSON, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. NRC Staff LEAH PROBST, Study Director PAUL CUTLER, Senior Program Officer ROB GREENWAY, Senior Program Assistant FLORENCE POILLON, Editor

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Noaa's Role in Space-Based Global Precipitation Estimation and Application BOARD ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND CLIMATE ROBERT J. SERAFIN (Chair), National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado M. JOAN ALEXANDER, NorthWest Research Associates/CORA, Boulder, Colorado FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, McKenna Long & Aldridge LLP, Washington, D.C. MICHAEL L. BENDER, Princeton University, New Jersey ROSINA M. BIERBAUM, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MARY ANNE CARROLL, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor CAROL ANNE CLAYSON, Florida State University, Tallahassee WALTER F. DABBERDT, Vaisala Inc., Boulder, Colorado KERRY A. EMANUEL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge DENNIS L. HARTMANN, University of Washington, Seattle PETER R. LEAVITT, Weather Information Inc., Newton, Massachusetts JENNIFER A. LOGAN, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts VERNON R. MORRIS, Howard University, Washington, D.C. F. SHERWOOD ROWLAND, University of California, Irvine THOMAS H. VONDER HAAR, Colorado State University/CIRA, Fort Collins ROGER M. WAKIMOTO, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado Ex Officio Members ANTONIO J. BUSALACCHI, JR., University of Maryland, College Park ERIC F. WOOD, Princeton University, New Jersey NRC Staff CHRIS ELFRING, Director PAUL CUTLER, Senior Program Officer AMANDA STAUDT, Senior Program Officer IAN KRAUCUNAS, Program Officer CURTIS MARSHALL, Program Officer CLAUDIA MENGELT, Program Officer ELIZABETH GALINIS, Research Associate LEAH PROBST, Research Associate ROB GREENWAY, Senior Program Assistant KATIE WELLER, Senior Program Assistant DIANE GUSTAFSON, Administrative Coordinator ANDREAS SOHRE, Financial Associate

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Noaa's Role in Space-Based Global Precipitation Estimation and Application Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Jeffrey Anderson, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO Phillip Arkin, University of Maryland, College Park Peter Bauer, European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK Christian Kummerow, Colorado State University, Fort Collins Grant Petty, University of Wisconsin, Madison Soroosh Sorooshian, University of California, Irvine Sandra Yuter, North Carolina State University, Raleigh Edward Zipser, University of Utah, Salt Lake City Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the report’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert Dickinson, Georgia Institute of

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Noaa's Role in Space-Based Global Precipitation Estimation and Application Technology, Atlanta. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Noaa's Role in Space-Based Global Precipitation Estimation and Application Contents     SUMMARY   1      Lessons Learned from TRMM,   4      Best Uses of GPM Data at NOAA,   5      Preparations for the GPM Mission and Beyond,   6 1   INTRODUCTION   11      Report Focus,   12      The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission,   13      Four Components of the GPM Mission,   14      Three Phases of the GPM Mission,   18      GPM as a Prototype for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems,   19      Summary,   20 2   LESSONS FROM TRMM APPLICABLE TO THE GPM MISSION   21      Lessons for Space-Based Measurement of Precipitation,   21      Lessons for Operational Application of Research Mission Data,   28      Finding and Recommendation to Apply the Lessons from TRMM to Enhance the Operational Use of GPM Mission Data,   30 3   PRECIPITATION DATA IN NOAA OPERATIONS   33      NOAA Mission Requirements for Precipitation Data and Related Products,   33      Sources of NOAA Operational Precipitation Data,   37

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Noaa's Role in Space-Based Global Precipitation Estimation and Application      Challenges and Opportunities for Future Space-Based Precipitation Missions,   49      Application of Space-Based Precipitation Data,   49      Potential Applications of GPM Data,   66      Summary,   71 4   NOAA PREPARATION FOR EARLY EXPLOITATION OF NEW SPACE-BASED PRECIPITATION DATA   72      NOAA-NASA Partnership,   72      NOAA Preparation for Use of GPM Data,   75      Summary,   89 5   NOAA ROADMAP TO PREPARE FOR FUTURE SPACE-BASED GLOBAL PRECIPITATION MISSIONS   90      Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Risk Reduction Plan as a Model for NOAA’s GPM Strategic Plan,   90      Activities Within the Context of the Three-Phase NOAA Strategic Plan for GPM,   91      Research-to-Operations Implementation Plan,   92      Post-GPM Operational Precipitation System,   98      Summary,   99     REFERENCES   101     CONTRIBUTORS TO THE STUDY PROCESS   109     APPENDIXES          A  NOAA WHITE PAPER: NOAA COOPERATION WITH NASA ON THE GLOBAL PRECIPITATION MISSION   113      B  NOAA’S NEAR-, MID-, AND LONG-TERM GOALS   117      C  NASA REAUTHORIZATION BILL: NASA-NOAA COORDINATION   120      D  COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHIES   122      E  ACRONYMS   128