Index

A

ABS. See Australian Bureau of Statistics

“Absent Family Schedule,” 30n

Absent person who usually lives here in sample unit, in residence rules for the Current Population Survey, 55

Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.) Program, 46, 152, 211, 228, 253

ACS. See American Community Survey

Address verification, 215–216

Administrative Protective Act, 42

Administrative records, using to help locate and count overseas Americans, 337

“Advance Census Report,” 189, 192

Advance letters, developing, 187–189

“Advance Schedule of Population,” 30n

African Americans

foster child population, 103

inner-city areas, 125

Agricultural workers. See Farm workers

Alabama, 125

Alaska Natives, 144

foster child population, 103

Alaska TEAs, remote, 32

Algorithms, developing and implementing unduplication, 187

Alternative Questionnaire Experiments (AQE), 165, 169, 202, 270

Alternative questionnaire tests and approaches, 202–203

Alzheimer’s disease, 81

Ambiguity due to housing stock issues, 156–165, 186

hotels and motels, 159–161

people dislocated by disasters, 161–165

American Citizens Abroad, 328n

American civilians residing overseas, 327–338

the 1990 census, 331–334

the 2000 census, 334–335

the 2004 overseas census test, 335–336

concepts in counting, 336–338

treatment in past censuses, 328–331

American Community Survey (ACS), 50, 54, 118, 163, 174, 176–178, 181, 190, 225, 265

household roster question and instructions from the 1996-1998, 263

household roster question and instructions from the 2005, 260

“Your Guide for the ACS,” 261

American Indians. See Native Americans

American Statistical Association, census fellowships, 270

“Any residence elsewhere” (ARE), 5–6, 240, 243, 249, 265, 267

allowing, 238

collection of, 212–215

April 1, as “Census Day,” 29, 247

AQE. See Alternative Questionnaire Experiments

ARE. See “Any residence elsewhere”



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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Index A ABS. See Australian Bureau of Statistics “Absent Family Schedule,” 30n Absent person who usually lives here in sample unit, in residence rules for the Current Population Survey, 55 Accuracy and Coverage Evaluation (A.C.E.) Program, 46, 152, 211, 228, 253 ACS. See American Community Survey Address verification, 215–216 Administrative Protective Act, 42 Administrative records, using to help locate and count overseas Americans, 337 “Advance Census Report,” 189, 192 Advance letters, developing, 187–189 “Advance Schedule of Population,” 30n African Americans foster child population, 103 inner-city areas, 125 Agricultural workers. See Farm workers Alabama, 125 Alaska Natives, 144 foster child population, 103 Alaska TEAs, remote, 32 Algorithms, developing and implementing unduplication, 187 Alternative Questionnaire Experiments (AQE), 165, 169, 202, 270 Alternative questionnaire tests and approaches, 202–203 Alzheimer’s disease, 81 Ambiguity due to housing stock issues, 156–165, 186 hotels and motels, 159–161 people dislocated by disasters, 161–165 American Citizens Abroad, 328n American civilians residing overseas, 327–338 the 1990 census, 331–334 the 2000 census, 334–335 the 2004 overseas census test, 335–336 concepts in counting, 336–338 treatment in past censuses, 328–331 American Community Survey (ACS), 50, 54, 118, 163, 174, 176–178, 181, 190, 225, 265 household roster question and instructions from the 1996-1998, 263 household roster question and instructions from the 2005, 260 “Your Guide for the ACS,” 261 American Indians. See Native Americans American Statistical Association, census fellowships, 270 “Any residence elsewhere” (ARE), 5–6, 240, 243, 249, 265, 267 allowing, 238 collection of, 212–215 April 1, as “Census Day,” 29, 247 AQE. See Alternative Questionnaire Experiments ARE. See “Any residence elsewhere”

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Arizona, 87, 99n, 115 Assessment of the 2000 census residence rules, 31–33 in plans for 2010, 51–57 Assisted living options, 43 “At Sea” groups, 109 Australia, 202 residence concepts and questions in, 305–308 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 305 B Babies and young children, missed by census questions and operations, 155–156 Bachelor officers’ quarters (BOQ), 69 Baker v. Carr, 24, 46 Barracks, 108 Base housing, personnel stationed at domestic bases or living in nearby housing, 62, 106–109 Basic residence instructions, 1970 census questionnaire, 194 Basic residence question, 26 1970 census questionnaire, 194 1980 census questionnaire, 196 1990 census questionnaire, 198 2001 census of population, Canada, 310 advance materials distributed prior to enumerator visits, 1960 census, 193 “Be Counted” program, 49, 156–157 Beggars, 147 Births and deaths in the United States on Census Day, 52 by month, 2004, 154 BJS. See Bureau of Justice Statistics Boarding schools, 76–77 students at, 52 BOQ. See Bachelor officers’ quarters Borough of Bethel Park v. Stans (1971), 70, 72, 88, 98 Brennan Center for Justice, 85 Bureau of Consular Affairs, 328 Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 83 Bureau of Indian Affairs, 74–76 Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), 82, 92, 95 C C2SS. See Census 2000 Supplementary Survey California, 86, 112, 128, 130, 134, 138, 243, 328 California state definitions of residence, 39–40 residence for in-state college tuition, 39 residence for obtaining a driver’s license, 40 residence for taxation purposes, 40 residence for voting purposes, 40 Canada, 201–202, 328 residence concepts and questions in, 308–311 Canadians, 117–118 CAPI. See Computer-assisted personal interviewing instruments CATI. See Computer-assisted telephone interviewing instruments CEFU. See Coverage edit follow-up operation Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C2SS), 254, 268 Census Act, 72 Census Bureau. See U.S. Census Bureau Census Bureau’s difficulties measuring residence, 33–44 changing norms and living situations, 41–43 definitional challenges, 33–37 discrepant standards, 37–41 inherent tie to geography, 43–44 Census data, refining the Bureau’s routines for editing, 189 “Census Day,” 28–29, 78, 111–112, 117, 130, 151–155, 197, 211–213, 216, 295–301 April 1 as, 29, 247 births and deaths missed by census questions and operations, 153–155 movers missed by census questions and operations, 151–153 people living in special places on, 188 people whose living situation changes on, 188 response problem, 220–222 Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP), 102, 176, 239–240

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Census schedule, versus school schedules, 76 Census taking babies and young children, 155–156 Census Day births and deaths, 153–155 Census Day movers, 151–153 changes in, 30 improving accuracy of, 57 lessons from a review of living situations, 166–173 needed research on living situations, 174–178 people missed by, 151–156 Central America, 127 Central Statistical Office of Ireland, 313 Child Trends, 138 Children custody arrangement types, 135, 139 divided custody, 135 in foster care, 62, 103–105 handicapped, schools for, 35 joint custody, 133–139, 185 sole custody, 135 split custody, 135 under age 18, by household composition, 132 young, missed by census questions and operations, 155–156 Children in Custody Census, 102n Choice, as a factor in defining residence, 98 CJRP. See Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement Cognitive testing, 269 comprehension of the questions, 269 decision processes, 269 response processes, 269 retrieval from memory of relevant information, 269 Cohabiting couples, 41, 140–141 children of, 140 College dormitories (including college quarters off campus), 35 College housing types and options, variation in, 73–75 College tuition, California residence definition for in-state, 39 Colleges and universities, 67–76 census schedule versus school schedule, 76 student independence versus parents’ enduring ties, 71–73 variation in college housing types and options, 73–75 Colonias, 143 Committee on National Statistics, 174, 251 Commuter workers and commuter marriage partners, 120–123 Complex and ambiguous living situations, 113–163 ambiguity due to housing stock issues, 156–165 and the changing nature of families, 131–146 the homeless population, 146–151 multiple residence and highly mobile populations, 113–131 people missed by census questions and operations, 151–156 Complex household structures, 131–146 children in joint custody, 133–139 cohabiting couples, 140–141 issues unique to Native Americans, 144–146 recent immigrants, 141–144 Comprehension, of the questions, 269 Computational capacity, advances in, 214 Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) instruments, 256 Computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) instruments, 255 Conducting the count, 238–241 different forms for different settings, 240–241 facility and administrative records, 238–240 Confidentiality issues, 337–338 “Congregate foster care,” 105 Congressional Record, 332–333 COPAFS. See Council of Professional Associations on Federal Statistics Correctional facilities, 35, 82–103 for adults, defined, 234–235 jails, 82, 99–101 juvenile facilities, 101–103 prisons, 82, 84–99 Council of Professional Associations on Federal Statistics (COPAFS), 77n, 112, 121, 133, 165, 181–182, 208, 213 Count Question Resolution Program, 226–227 Country-specific problems, 336 Coverage edit follow-up (CEFU) operation, 49 Coverage follow-up plans, for the 2010 census, 217

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Coverage probes, 21, 197–201, 216–217 candidate sets, 205 questions in, 200–201, 209 Coverage treatment groups, in the 2005 National Census Test, 206–207 CPS. See Current Population Survey Cross-border commuters, 320 Cross-divisional ties, facilitating, 175–176 Current Population Survey (CPS), 54, 56, 136, 138, 156, 163, 174, 176–178, 237 need for a supplemental module to, 178 “Current residence” standard, 56, 262 Custody versus jurisdiction, 91–92 D Data. See Internal data; Self-report data De facto residence, 28, 53, 56, 161, 184–185, 256, 271, 305, 312–313, 316–317, 319, 321, 324 De jure residence, 53, 56, 161, 184, 256, 271, 308, 312, 314–315, 321, 323 Decision processes, 269 Definitions from the 2006 census test, 234–237 challenges posed by, 33–37 new approaches, 7–8 Delivery Sequence File, 227 Demographic analysis, 48 Department of Children and Family Services (Illinois), 104 Design of the MAF, 250 of new experiments, 176 of public outreach programs, 189 Destination communities, 116 Disasters, people dislocated by, 161–165 Discrepant standards, 37–41 enduring ties, 38–41 residence in administrative records, 41 “Disregard,” of instructions on questionnaires, 191 District of Columbia, 88, 268 District of Columbia v. U.S. Department of Commerce (1992), 90–91 Divided custody arrangements, 135 Divorces, by whether and to whom physical custody of children was awarded, selected states, 1989 and 1990, 137 “DO NOT LIST” population, 192, 259, 297, 300–301 in the 1990 census, 171–172 in the 2000 census, 301 DoD. See U.S. Department of Defense Dormitories, 35 military, 108 Doubtful cases, residence rules for the Current Population Survey, 55 Driver’s licenses, California residence definition for obtaining, 40 Dunn v. Blumstein, 37 Duplication, 47 E ECUs. See Extended care units Embedded housing units, 161 “Emergency shelters,” 162 Employment and Training Administration, 128 “Enduring ties” among Native Americans, 146 argument for prisoners’ “homes,” 38–41, 93, 95, 97, 304, 334 Enumeration area types. See Types of enumeration areas in the 2000 Census ERP. See Estimated resident population ESCAP. See Executive Steering Committee on A.C.E. Policy research program Estimated resident population (ERP), 306 Estonia, residence concepts and questions in, 312 Ethnographic Evaluation of the Behavioral Causes of Census Undercount, 167 Ethnographic research in the census, 141, 144, 165, 167 Evaluation Review, 149 Exceptions, residence rules for the Current Population Survey, 55 Executive Steering Committee on A.C.E. Policy (ESCAP) research program, 47–48 Experimentation and testing for the future, 10–12 to be performed during a decennial census, 189 Extended care units (ECUs), 79 Extended-stay hotels proliferation of, 160

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census F Facility and administrative records, 238–240 Families the changing nature of, 131–139 defining, 34, 41 desire to preserve, 45 FAQs. See “Frequently asked questions” Farm workers classification of, 129 migrant, 127–131 Federal Bureau of Prisons, 83 Federal civilian personnel, stationed overseas, 186 Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology, 125 Federal Highway Administration, 122 Federal Register, 21, 53 Findings, 33, 50, 53, 174, 191, 232–233, 242, 250, 270 Florida, 115–116, 118 Follow-the-crop migrants, 128 Follow-up letters, 222 Foreign census questionnaires, 201–202 Foreign students, studying in the U.S. on Census Day, 71 Foster care children in, 62, 103–105 “congregate,” 105 Franklin v. Massachusetts (1992), 38, 41–42, 93, 123, 304 “Frequently asked questions” (FAQs), 187 application as the basis for, 188 Further Study of Person Duplication, 47, 253 G “Gatekeepers,” 66, 241 Geographical database systems, 23, 26 Geographical factors, 43–44 poor handling of, 226–228 GI Bill, 70 Green bill, 91 Group homes, 35, 235 Group quarters, 6–10, 234–235 the concept of, 62–67 correctional facilities for adults, 234–235 defined, 181, 234 definitions from the 2006 census test, 234–237 enumerating, 50 group homes and residential treatment centers for adults, 235 health care facilities, 236 juvenile facilities, 235 length of stay, 63 new approaches, 7–8 other facilities, 237 people in prisons, 8–10 refusals from, 232 in residence rules for the ACS, 257 residential school-related facilities, 235–236 service-based enumeration facilities, 236 Group quarters categories for the 2000 census, 22, 35 college dormitories (including college quarters off campus), 35 correctional institutions, 35 dormitories and other group quarters, 35 group homes, 35 halfway houses, 35 hospices, 35 hospitals/wards, 35 juvenile institutions, 35 military quarters, 35 nursing homes, 35 schools for the handicapped, 35 service-based facilities, 35 Group quarters population by group quarters type, 2000 census, 64–65 institutionalized population, 64–65 noninstitutionalized population, 65 UHE allowed in the 2000 census, 298–299 UHE not allowed in the 2000 census, 299–300 Group quarters questionnaires ineffective processing of, 230–231 records in the Non-ID Process by form type, 2000 census, 231 H “Halfway houses,” 35, 83 Handicapped children, schools for, 35 Hard-to-count populations, 170 Health care facilities, 77–82 defined, 236 intermediate care, 78

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census residential care, 78 skilled care, 78 High levels of imputation, 232 High mobility rates, among Native Americans, 145–146 Historical development, 26–29 “Home” for a prisoner, 93–97 for a released prisoner, 97–98 “Home of record,” 66, 109, 328, 332–333 Homeless population, 146–151 Hospices, 35 Hospitals/wards, 35 Hotel populations, 160–161 Hotels and motels, 159–161 embedded and associated housing units, 161 hotel populations, 160–161 proliferation of extended-stay hotels, 160 House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, 332 House Subcommittee on Census and Population, 91, 332–334 Household count question, in the 2005 American Community Survey, 259 Household population, in the 2000 census, 295–298 Household roster question and instructions from the 1996–1998 American Community Survey, 263 from the 2005 American Community Survey, 260 “Households” defining, 34–36 as a polythetic category, 45 varying concepts of, 45 Housing units defining, 157 in residence rules for the ACS, 257 Hurricane Camille, 161 Hurricane Floyd, 161 Hurricane Katrina, 161–162 I ICRs. See Individual Census Reports “Ignoring,” of instructions on questionnaires, 191 Illinois, 86, 104, 246 Immigrants children of, 141 recent, 141–144 Implementation problems in the 2000 census, 226–233 failure to reconcile group quarters roster with MAF, 226 failure to unduplicate within the group quarters population, 232–233 high levels of imputation, 232 ineffective processing of group quarters questionnaires, 230–231 lack of coverage measurement and use of reported “usual home elsewhere” addresses, 228–230 poor handling of geographic location, 226–228 poor levels of full, self-report data, 228 Improvements for the future, 179–272. See also Findings; Recommendations nonhousehold enumeration, 225–248 operations, research, and testing, 249–272 residence principles for the decennial census, 181–223 In-state college tuition, California residence definition for, 39 Inaccessibility by common techniques, 119–120 Include and Exclude Instructions, in the 1950 Census, 173 Individual Census Reports (ICRs), 67–69, 150, 212, 228–230, 240 Institute of Medicine, 102 Institutionalized population, 64–65 Instructions and residence questions in recent censuses and tests, 192–208 alternative questionnaire tests and approaches, 202–203 coverage probes, 197–201 foreign census questionnaires, 201–202 mid-decade census tests, 203–208 previous U.S. censuses, 192–197 those not following, 45–46 Intermediate care facilities, 78 Internal data, making fuller use of, 174–175 Internet data, collection responses, 49, 306 Interview techniques, 269 Intrastate distortion, 89–91

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Ireland, residence concepts and questions in, 313–314 Israel, residence concepts and questions in, 314–315 Italy, residence concepts and questions in, 315 J Jails, 82, 99–101 Japan, residence concepts and questions in, 315–316 Japanese Statistics Bureau, 315 Joint custody arrangements, 135 JRFC. See Juvenile Residential Facility Census “Just for work” living situations, discounting, 45 Juvenile facilities, 35, 101–103 defined, 235 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, 101 Juvenile Residential Facility Census (JRFC), 102–103 K Kansas, census adjustment, 247 Kentucky, 227 King v. Smith, 125 Kinship and economic contribution, 44 L Language differences, among Native Americans, 145 Legal standards, varying, 45 “Life course” framework, for multiple residences, 118 “Linguistic isolation,” 142 List/enumerate TEAs, 32 Living Situation Survey (LSS), 126, 165, 168, 178, 213 Living situations basic research on, 176–178 changing, 41–43 complex and ambiguous, 113–163 lessons from a review of, 166–173 Local Update of Census Addresses program, 252 Loma Prieta earthquake, 161 Long-form replacement. See American Community Survey Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study, 176 LSS. See Living Situation Survey M MAF. See Master Address File MAF/TIGER Enhancements Program, 20, 44, 250 Mail-and-field tests, 21 Mailed questionnaires, 30 Mailout/mailback TEAs, 32, 199 conversion to update/leave TEAs, 32 Marriage. See Commuter workers and commuter marriage partners; Divorces Maryland, 108, 149 Massachusetts, 333–334 Massachusetts v. Franklin, 334 Master Address File (MAF), 6, 20, 23, 26, 43, 108, 159, 169, 174, 190, 214, 226, 230, 240, 250–252 design, 250 evaluation, 250–251 scope, 250 updating, 187 Master address list, ensuring a complete count without, 337 MCRs. See Military Census Reports Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, 81 Medicare Enrollment Files, 81 Memory of relevant information, retrieval from, 269 “Methods panel,” 265–266 Mexico, 127–128, 328 Mid-decade census tests, 203–208 Migrant farm workers, 127–131 Military and seaborne personnel, 35, 105–112, 186 in barracks, 108 on domestic bases or living in nearby housing, 62, 106–109 in dormitories, 108 in officer housing, 108–109 on-base and off-base housing for families and dependent children, 109 public partnerships to house, 109 shipboard personnel, 110–112 TEAs, 32 Military Census Reports (MCRs), 68–69, 107–108, 240 Military Housing Privatization Initiative, 109

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Minnesota, 138 Minority men, 124–127 “Mission Night” operation, 148 Missouri, 227 Mobile populations. See Multiple residence and highly mobile populations Mode of completion, group quarters individual census reports in the 2000 census, 229 Monthly cycles, in residence rules, 296 “Most of the time,” where people spend, 119–120 “Motor Voter” Act. See National Voter Registration Act “Mover probe” procedure, 153 Movers on Census Day, 52 Multi-unit dwellings, criteria for distinguishing separate units in, 1850–2000, 158 Multiple residence and highly mobile populations, 113–131 commuter workers and commuter marriage partners, 120–123 “life course” framework for, 118 migrant farm workers, 127–131 minority men, 124–127 recreational vehicle users, 118–120 residential ambiguity due to occupation, 123–124 “snowbirds” and “sunbirds,” 114–118 N National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS), 128, 130 National Census Test, 20, 208, 214, 217–218, 268 National Center for Education Statistics, 74–76 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 79, 136 National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), 80, 176 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), 122 National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty v. Kantor, 149 National Nursing Home Surveys (NNHS) rounds, 79–80 National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey, 74 National Research Council, 20, 48, 102, 133, 232, 252, 255 National Science Foundation, census fellowships, 271 National Survey of Families and Households, 176 National Survey of Family Growth, 140 National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC), 147 National Survey of Recreation Vehicle Owners, 119 National Voter Registration Act, 38 Native Americans “enduring ties” among, 146 foster child population, 103 fundamental difference in “house-hold” concept, 144–145 high mobility rates, 145–146 issues unique to, 144–146 language differences, 145 resistance to or reluctance to federal government questioning, 145 NAWS. See National Agricultural Workers Survey NCHS. See National Center for Health Statistics Nevada, 99n New Immigrant Survey, 176 New Jersey, 128 New York, 89, 98, 104, 116–117, 128, 246 New York Times, 241–242, 244 New York University School of Law, 85–86, 89 New Zealand, 201–202 residence concepts and questions in, 316–319 Newly released state prisoners time served by, 1993-2002, 95 time served by offense type, 1993 and 2002, 96 NHDS. See National Hospital Discharge Survey NHTS. See National Household Travel Survey NNHS. See National Nursing Home Surveys rounds No clearly defined cycle, in residence rules, 296 Non-ID Process, 228, 230 “Nondwelling-unit quarters,” in 1950 census, 62 Nonhousehold enumeration, 225–248 allowing “any residence elsewhere,” 238 conducting the count, 238–241

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census counting prisoners in the census, 241–248 implementation problems in the 2000 census, 226–233 rethinking the concept, 233–238 Nonhousehold population, 61–112 children in foster care, 103–105 the concept of “group quarters,” 62–67 correctional facilities, 82–103 health care facilities, 77–82 military and seaborne personnel, 105–112 students, 67–77 “Noninstitutional group quarters,” 63 Noninstitutionalized population, 65 Nonpermanent residents, 114 Nonseasonal addresses, 117 Norms, changing, 41–43 North Carolina, 246, 328 NSHAPC. See National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients Nursing homes, 35 O Office for National Statistics (United Kingdom), 321, 324–325 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), 102, 239 Office of Personnel Management, 331 Officer housing, 108–109 OJJDP. See Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Omission and duplication, 46–50 On-base and off-base housing for families and dependent children, 109 “One rule” proposed residence rules revision, in plans for 2010, 51 Operations, research, and testing, 249–272 the Census Bureau Research and Testing Program, 267–272 clashing residence standards between the census and the American Community Survey, 254–266 Master Address File, 250–252 testing and research in 2010 and beyond, 266–267 unduplication methodology, 252–254 Oregon, 88 Overcounts in the 2000 Census, 48 identified by the A.C.E. program, 46–47 Overrepresentation, of minority children in foster care, 103 Overseas population, in the 2000 census, 300 P Panel to Review the 2000 Census, 133, 252 Paperwork Reduction Act, 190 Parents’ enduring ties, versus student independence, 71–73 Parole restrictions, 97 Patient discharges and distribution of current nursing home residents, 81 Pennsylvania, 86, 126, 128 Person Duplication Studies, 253 Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care, 103 Philippines, 329 Plans for 2010 census, 20–21, 51–57 assessment, 51–57 proposed residence rules revision, 51 “PLEASE BE SURE TO LIST,” 192 Point-in-time phenomena, 146 Point prevalence rates, 147 Political tension, over counting prisoners, 86 Population data, 337 defining, 336 Post-Enumeration Survey, 228, 252 Presentation of residence concepts, to respondents and enumerators, 189–192 Previous U.S. censuses, 18–19, 192–197 Primary selection algorithm (PSA), 253 Principles approach to residence based on, 2–3 a core set of, 182–186 products for implementation of, 186–189 Principles and Practices for a Federal Statistical Agency, 174 Prison-hosting communities, 242 Prison Policy Initiative, 89 “Prisoner Census Adjustment Act,” 246 Prisoners, 8–10 ambiguity of their residence, 84 counting in the census, 241–248 political tension over counting, 86

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Prisons, 82, 84–100 choice as a factor in defining residence, 98 considered “home” for a prisoner, 93–97 custody versus jurisdiction, 91–92 and “home” for a released prisoner, 97–98 legal standards on residence and voting, 98–99 potential for intrastate distortion, 89–91 sentence length, 92–93 Privacy issues, 337. See also Social Security Number, Privacy Attitudes, and Notification Experiment Privatization, increased, 92 Products for implementation of the principles, 186–189 designing public outreach programs, 189 developing and implementing unduplication algorithms, 187 developing experiments to be performed during a decennial census, 189 developing the advance letter, 187–189 refining the Bureau’s routines for editing census data, 189 Proposed changes to residence situation applications, 52 births and deaths on Census Day, 52 boarding school students, 52 movers on Census Day, 52 Proposed form of basic usual residence questionnaire item (UR1), 2006 Census of Population and Housing, Australia, 307 PSA. See Primary selection algorithm Public partnerships (in military housing), 109 Public safety personnel, long shifts worked by, 124 Q “Quasi-households,” in 1930 and 1940 censuses, 62 Questionnaires, 190 2005 American Community Survey, 262, 264 ignoring and disregard of instructions on, 191 items to collect primary and secondary address information, 2000 census of population, Switzerland, 320 questions, not instructions, 4–5, 210–211 simplifying, 223 telephone assistance with, 186 R Recommendations, 174–175, 177–178, 184, 212–213, 216, 218–219, 221–222, 241, 243, 251–252, 265–266, 271 Recreational Vehicle Industry Association, 119 Recreational vehicles (RVs), 118–120 dedicated users of, 185 incomplete inventory of campsites, 120 Reference period, in residence rules for the ACS, 258 “Report for Military and Maritime Personnel” questionnaires, 107 Research Data Centers, enhancing, 271 Research needed, 222–223 building and strengthening ties to external, 176 fuller use of internal data, 174–175 on living situations, 174–178 monitoring social trends, 175–176 Residence, 37 in administrative records, 41 ambiguity due to occupation, 123–124 and the census, 13–57 Census Bureau’s difficulties measuring, 33–44 choice as a factor in defining, 98 legal standards on, 98–99 respondents’ difficulties defining, 44–46 Residence concepts and questions in selected foreign censuses, 303–325 Australia, 305–308 Canada, 308–311 Estonia, 312 Ireland, 313–314 Israel, 314–315 Italy, 315 Japan, 315–316 New Zealand, 316–319

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census South Africa, 319–320 Switzerland, 320–321 United Kingdom, 321–325 United Nations/Economic Commission of Europe Guidelines, 303–305 United Nations Statistics Division, 305 Residence information collection, 3–6, 208–219. See also Basic residence question accuracy issues, 175 “any residence elsewhere” and other questions, 5–6 the Master Address File, 6 mode effects, 217–218 from prisoners, 187 questions, not instructions, 4–5, 210–211 related census operations, 6 the short form as too short, 5–6, 211–217 testing ARE in 2010, 218–219 Residence principles for the decennial census, 181–223 application as the basis for “frequently asked questions,” 188 the Census Day response problem, 220–222 a core set of principles, 182–186 getting the right residence information, 208–219 instructions and residence questions in recent censuses and tests, 192–208 people living in special places on Census Day, 188 people whose living situation changes on Census Day, 188 people with more than one residence, 188 people with only one residence, 188 presentation of residence concepts to respondents and enumerators, 189–192 products for implementation of the principles, 186–189 research needs, 222–223 suggested statement of, 184 U.S. citizens living outside the United States, 188 Residence rules, 23–57, 181 in the 1990 census, 171–172, 183 in the 2000 census and the 2000 alternative questionnaire experiment, 204 in the 2001 Census of Population, Canada, 309 assessment of the 2000 census residence rules, 31–33 the Census Bureau’s difficulties measuring residence, 33–44 challenges in defining residence, 59–178 the changing role of, 29–31 complex and ambiguous living situations, 113–163 complexities of, 46–50 consequences of residence complexities, 46–50 group quarters enumeration, 50 guiding principles as they apply to individual(s) with multiple residences, 296 historical development, 26–29 monthly cycles, 296 need for, 24–25 need for residence rules, 24–25 no clearly defined cycle, 296 the nonhousehold population, 61–112 omission and duplication, 46–50 plans for 2010, 51–57 respondents’ difficulties defining residence, 44–46 time split equally among two or more residences, 296 weekly cycles, 296 yearly cycles, 296 Residence rules for the 2000 census, 295–301 do not list population, 301 group quarters population, UHE allowed, 298–299 group quarters population, UHE not allowed, 299–300 household population, 295–298 overseas population, 300 Residence rules for the American Community Survey (ACS), 257 group quarters, 257 housing units, 257 reference period, 258

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Residence rules for the Current Population Survey, 55 absent person who usually lives here in sample unit, 55 exceptions and doubtful cases, 55 persons staying in sample unit at time of interview, 55 Residence standards, the U.S. census versus the American Community Survey, 254–266 Residential ambiguity due to occupation, 123–124 Residential facilities extended care, 78 school-related, 235–236 treatment centers for adults, 235 Resistance to or reluctance to federal government questioning, among Native Americans, 145 Respondents’ difficulties defining residence, 44–46 desire to preserve the family unit, 45 discounting “just for work” living situations, 45 kinship and economic contribution, 44 social ties, 44 those not following instructions, 45–46, 156 varying concepts of “household,” 45 varying legal standards, 45 Response Mode and Incentive Experiment, 268 Response processes, 269 Restrictions, requirements of other countries limiting the Bureau’s ability to conduct a count, 337 Rhode Island, 245 Rural update/enumerate TEAs, 32 RVs. See Recreational vehicles S S-night (Shelter and Street Night) operations, 148–149, 151 Scope, of the MAF, 250 SCR. See Shipboard Census Report Seasonal residents, 115 Self-administered responses, 30, 219 Self-enumeration, effect on the process of a census, 189 Self-report data, poor levels of, 228 Semipermanent living quarters, 170 Semiresidential long-term care options, 43 Sentence length, 92–94 Service-based enumeration, 150 facilities for, 35, 236 Settings, different forms for, 240–241 Shipboard Census Report (SCR), 68, 240 Shipboard personnel, 106, 110–112 Short form census, 190, 219 “any residence elsewhere” collection, 212–215 coverage and housing type probes, 216–217 as too short, 5–6, 211–217 verifying addresses, 215–216 Shuttle migrants, 128 Single room occupancy (SRO) hotels, 160n SIPP. See Survey of Income and Program Participation Skilled care facilities, 78 “Snowbirds” and “sunbirds,” 114–118, 176 Social Security Administration, 338 Social Security Number, Privacy Attitudes, and Notification Experiment, 268 Social ties, 44 Social trends analyzing Census Bureau data, 175–176 building and strengthening ties to external research, 176 designing new experiments, 176 facilitating cross-divisional ties, 175–176 monitoring, 175–176 Sole custody arrangements, 135 South Africa, residence concepts and questions in, 319–320 “Special class” circumstances, 107 Split custody arrangements, 135 Splitting time equally, among two or more residences, 296 SRO. See Single room occupancy hotels Standards. See Discrepant standards; Legal standards; Residence standards State definitions of residence (California), 39–40 residence for in-state college tuition, 39 residence for obtaining a driver’s license, 40 residence for taxation purposes, 40 residence for voting purposes, 40 Statistical Office of the European Communities, 303

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census Statistics Canada, 308, 310–311 Statistics New Zealand, 319 Stay in group quarters, length of, 63 “Street people,” 147 Students, 67–77 in boarding schools, 76–77 in colleges and universities, 67–76 foreign, 71 independence of versus parents’ enduring ties, 71–73 Subsistence activities, 146 “Supermax” security areas, 243 Survey of English Housing, 325 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 54, 56, 131, 152 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 95 Surveys of Consumers program, 119 Switzerland, 201 residence concepts and questions in, 320–321 T 2000 Census types of enumeration areas in, 32 undercount and overcount in, 48 Task-order relationships, improving, 271 Taxation purposes, California residence definition for, 40 TEAs. See Types of enumeration areas in the 2000 Census Telephone, questionnaire assistance by, 186 “Temporary absences,” 37 Temporary residents, 114, 262, 315 “Tenement houses,” 158 Testing and research in 2010 and beyond, 266–267 testing ARE in 2010, 218–219 Texas, 86–87, 104, 116–118, 328 “Think-aloud interviewing,” 269 TIGER. See Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing system database Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) system database, 20, 44, 226, 250 Transient Night (T-Night), 148, 151 Treatment groups, 208 Types of enumeration areas (TEAs) in the 2000 Census, 32 list/enumerate, 32 mailout/mailback, 32 mailout/mailback conversion to update/leave, 32 military, 32 remote Alaska, 32 rural update/enumerate, 32 update/leave, 32 “urban” update/enumerate, 32 “urban” update/leave, 32 U UHE. See “Usual home elsewhere” addresses U.N. Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), guidelines from, 303–305, 312 U.N. Statistics Division, residence concepts and questions from, 305 Undercounts, 177 in the 2000 Census, 48 probing for, 199 Undergraduate college housing, 2003-2004, 75 Unduplication in the 2000 census, 253 developing and implementing algorithms for, 187 methodology for, 252–254 UNECE. See U.N. Economic Commission for Europe Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act, 134 United Kingdom, 202 residence concepts and questions in, 321–325 Universities, 67–76 University of Michigan Survey Research Center, 119 Update/leave TEAs, 32 “Urban” update/enumerate TEAs, 32 “Urban” update/leave TEAs, 32 U.S. Attorney General, 330 U.S. Census Bureau, 20, 23–25, 33–36, 42–56, 61–62, 66, 73, 79–80, 85–88, 102, 126, 131, 138, 144, 147–148, 151, 161, 165, 174–178, 187, 191, 208, 216, 218, 226, 233, 239–240, 246–248, 251, 265–272, 331, 336 proposed 2010 Census Residence Rule, 52 proposed changes to residence situation applications, 52

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Once, Only Once, and in the Right Place: Residence Rules in the Decennial Census requirements of other countries limiting their ability to conduct a count, 337 research and testing program, 267–272 U.S. censuses 1950, 192 1960, 192–193 1970, 192–195 1980, 195–196 1990, 196–198 2000, 197 previous, 18–19, 192–197 U.S. citizens living outside the United States. See American civilians residing overseas U.S. Conference of Mayors, 149 U.S. Constitution, 72 12th Amendment, 123n U.S. Department of Commerce, 332–334 U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), 328–329, 331–333, 338 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 147 U.S. Department of Labor, 128 U.S. General Accounting Office, 336 U.S. Government Accountability Office, 255, 328n, 335–336 U.S. House of Representatives, 24 U.S. Justice Department, 330 U.S. Maritime Administration, 112, 329 U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 190 U.S. Postal Service, 227 U.S. State Department, 328–330, 334n, 338 U.S. Supreme Court, 24, 38, 42, 46, 70, 123, 125, 335 “Usual home elsewhere” (UHE) addresses, 33, 150, 238, 297 collecting, 212 use of reported, and lack of coverage measurement, 228–230 “Usual residence” categories, 22, 33, 36, 45, 61, 91, 105, 127, 305, 317 as delineated by the Census Order 2000, United Kingdom, 322 enduring concept of, 272 guidelines in defining, 26–27, 184 as individual-level attributes, 185, 266 Utah, 243, 328, 335 V Vacation homes, 262 Verbal probing, 269 Vermont, 99 Virginia, 88, 328 Visual cues, 192 Voting California residence definition for, 40 legal standards for, 98–99 Voting Rights Act, 24, 38 W Weekly cycles, in residence rules, 296 Wisconsin, 91, 137–138, 227 Work-related issues. See Commuter workers and commuter marriage partners; Farm workers; Residential ambiguity due to occupation Work-study release centers, 83 “Worksheet” treatment, 211, 268 Y Yearly cycles, in residence rules, 296