ternet. A question-based approach may be more robust against differences in answers due to the mode by which the questionnaire is administered. Regardless of the final structure of residence questions chosen for 2010, research must be done on response effects created by mode of administration—mail, phone, Internet, and interview with handheld computers.

The Short Form Is Too Short: “Any Residence Elsewhere” and Other Questions

In 2000, respecting the demand to keep burden on respondents as low as possible as well as following direction from congressional oversight authority, the Bureau made sure that every question on the census short and long forms was matched to specific legal and regulatory uses. But paring the questionnaire too far can prevent the census from achieving its core mission of gathering accurate resident counts. Collection of enough information to determine “usual residence” requires the addition of some additional questions.

The principal addition that is needed is a question that asks whether each person has any other residence. Foreign censuses have found ways to collect auxiliary address information with an economy of space, and the Bureau’s own valuable work in matching the complete set of 2000 census results against itself (using probability models based on name and date of birth) suggests that the computational power needed to process and retain auxiliary address information is at hand. Consequently, information on “any residence elsewhere” (ARE) should be collected from census respondents. This information should include the specific street address of the other residence location. A followup question should ask whether the respondent considers this ARE location to be their usual residence, the place where they live or sleep more than any other place.

Though we believe that ARE data collection is something that could be implemented for the 2010 census, it may be prudent to include it as a major experiment instead. A major test of census residence concepts, conducted in conjunction with the 2010 census, should be the basis for postcensal development leading to the 2020 census. This test should include both a question-based approach to collecting resident count information and a provision for ARE reporting by all census respondents, including those living in group quarters (nonhousehold) situations. The information should be gathered and processed, field verified on at least a sample basis, and reported on in census evaluations, in order to direct research over the next decade and fuller implementation in 2020.

Finally, no recent census has allowed respondents the ability to directly indicate that they believe that address information on their census questionnaire is inaccurate. Respondents have been unable to indicate, for example, that they have received the form at a seasonal home or that the Postal Service

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